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Prem lge betting line Effect of k Da and k Da protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages. This document profiles wartune class wars betting online successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The rapid adoption of robotic assisted surgery challenges the pace at which adequate robotic training can occur due to access limitations to the da Vinci robot. Both are circular, with sizes of 39, bp for P. But wanna remark on some general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really nice : D.
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Por que mauro betting saiu da bandeirantes guarulhos In M. Just wanted to tell you keep up the fantastic work! The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray EDX spectroscopy. Cysts of H. Many thanks for sharing! Past few posts are just a little out of track!


The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA. Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti DA rats and a novel congenic DA. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.

Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA. Caretta, C. No caso de G Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship QSAR is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds 2 DA or Euclidean distance 3 DA.

The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges.

We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage. To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement.

Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery.

Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery. A bone tissue engineering strategy based on starch scaffolds and bone marrow cells cultured in a flow perfusion bioreactor.

A Engenharia de Tecidos e uma area cientifica em continua expansao. Os desenvolvimentos conseguidos por esta area tem contribuido significativamente para diversos avancos no campo da Medicina Regenerativa. Esta ciencia interdisciplinar combina os conhecimentos de diversas outras areas, tao distintas como a Engenharia de Materiais e a Biologia, com o objectivo de desenvolver substitutos sinteticos para tecidos humanos.

Para se atingir este objectivo utilizam-se, de uma forma generica, combinacoes especificas de celulas e de um material de suporte tridimensional com propriedades adequadas, gerando um material hibrido cujas caracteristicas podem ainda ser moduladas atraves do sistema de cultura usado. A presente tese e centrada no desenvolvimento de estrategias de engenharia de tecido osseo baseadas na cultura in vitro de celulas previamente "semeadas" num suporte tridimensional "scaffold".

Esta estrategia permite que as celulas adiram ao suporte, proliferem e segreguem matriz extracelular especifica do tecido osseo, ate se obter um substituto artificial funcional com caracteristicas do tecido original, que pode finalmente ser transplantado para tratar o defeito em causa. Para que uma estrategia deste tipo seja bem sucedida, pelo menos tres componentes fundamentais devem ser cuidadosamente estudados: o material de suporte scaffold , as celulas a usar e o sistema de cultura in vitro.

The UM -PRS provides a reasoning system that represents robotic applications even in unpredictable domains, such as the robotic reconnaissance task domain outlined here. UM -PRS incorporates a changing context, rather than relying solely on a prearranged plan. The UM -PRS here provides representation important in the reasoning and interface between a mission plan and the executable map of an outdoor vehicle that changes its behavior based on what it comes in contact with in its environment.

PRS is thus used in the dynamic control of such a vehicle, providing the basis for coordinating the joint task of multiple robotic vehicles by the their individual observations and representation. Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries.

Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide PEA is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA- um.

Origin of the DA and non- DA white dwarf stars. Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th.

The non- DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non- DA star. We present a study on the longtudinal locations, morphology and evolution of the 5- um hot spots at 6.

Use of " um " in the Deceptive Speech of a Convicted Murderer. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between language behaviors and deception; however, questions remain about the role of specific linguistic cues, especially in real-life high-stakes lies. This study investigated use of the so-called filler, " um ," in externally verifiable truthful versus deceptive speech of a convicted murderer.

The data…. O aprendizado. Raulin, J. Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic condition characterized by progressive scarring of lung parenchyma. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 21days by pentobarbitone overdose. One cohort of mice was sacrificed after seven days of bleomycin administration, followed by bronchoalveloar lavage and determination of myeloperoxidase activity, lung edema and histopathology features.

Da CHS puts particular emphasis on integrated metadata handling, which facilitates a tight integration with the VO's Registry. Test Review: Test Da F. The FAA has discussed Constante de 6, The merging dwarf galaxy UM chemodynamics of the ionized gas from VLT integral field spectroscopy. Radial velocity maps of all three components show signs of solid body rotation across UM , with a projected rotation axis that correlates with the continuum morphology of the galaxy.

We measure spatially resolved and integrated ionic and elemental abundances for O, N, S and Ne throughout UM , and find that they do not agree, possibly due the flux weighting of Te from the integrated spectrum. This has significant implications for abundances derived from long-slit and integrated spectra of star-forming galaxies in the nearby and distant universe.

Contrary to previous studies, however, we do not find evidence for a large Wolf-Rayet WR. Atypical pragmatic language is often present in individuals with autism spectrum disorders ASD , along with delays or deficits in structural language.

We hypothesized that children with ASD would use different patterns of fillers compared to peers with typical development or with specific language impairment SLI , reflecting differences in social ability and communicative intent.

Regression analyses revealed that children in the ASD group were much less likely to use um than children in the other two groups. Filler use is an easy-to-quantify feature of behavior that, in concert with other observations, may help to distinguish ASD from SLI. Surdej, J. The authors have recently initiated a high resolution direct imaging survey of a selected sample of highly luminous quasars HLQs. The observations are carried out with the 2. Additional observations supporting this interpretation are discussed here.

Low-resolution spectra of UM taken in , , and at Lick Observatory are presented. The decrease in column density in all three ions and an observed brightening of the QSO suggests that these changes are due to an increase in the ionization level driven by an increase in the central source luminosity.

This mechanism has been proposed by Smith and Penston to explain small changes in the absorption spectrum of the QSO The spectra of UM show that the fractional decrease in optical depth is smaller at higher outflow velocies. The structure of the broad absorption-line region BALR is investigted by estimating an ionization parameter for each ion species as a function of velocity. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.

A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex MHC genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti DA and novel congenic DA. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis PIA model and local analgesic effect of octreotide OCT between DA and DA.

The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.

Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed. VerSe Da : vertebrate secretome database. Based on the current tools, de novo secretome full set of proteins secreted by an organism prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions.

Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSe Da Vertebrate Secretome Database.

To our knowledge, VerSe Da is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci. To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program.

His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. Contains 3 resources and 3 online…. Published by Oxford University Press. Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae.

In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars using archival 24 um data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. To beat the higher than disadvantages, during this paper, a low-power differential SRAM design is planned. The differential SRAM design stores multiple bits within the same cell, operates at minimum in operation low-tension and space per bit.

During the spring and summer of installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper. However, its thermal fatigue resistance Its nominal chemical composition is shown in Table B The thermal strain, induced by the expansion and contraction of the.

Automated Support for da Vinci Surgical System. MScore, which provides objective assessment measuring robotic surgery skills across all computed metrics Figure 7. In addition to viewing single On each platform.

Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates.

In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age.

We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology. The real code of leonardo da vinci. Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work.

His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In , he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long.

This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia FH. The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s.

The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. The edge of a transmission window for a GaAs Bragg cell starts about lum, which allows this material to be used for infrared fiber-optic applications, especially at 1.

The single crystal of GaAs is acoustically anisotropic and has the highest figure of merit, M2, along direction for a longitudinal mode sound wave. Recently, Brimrose has designed and fabricated an acousto-optic modulator from GaAs operating at a carrier frequency of 2. Activation pathways of synovial T lymphocytes. Accumulating evidence implicates a central role for synovial T cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, but the activation pathways that drive proliferation and effector function of these cells are not known.

We have recently generated a novel monoclonal antibody against a rheumatoid synovial T cell line that recognizes an antigen termed UM 4D4 CDw This antigen is expressed on a minority of peripheral blood T cells, and represents the surface component of a distinct pathway of human T cell activation.

The current studies were performed to examine the expression and function of UM 4D4 on T cells obtained from synovial fluid and synovial membranes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disease. Images PMID Um total de 5. Raven surgical robot training in preparation for da vinci.

The rapid adoption of robotic assisted surgery challenges the pace at which adequate robotic training can occur due to access limitations to the da Vinci robot. Thirty medical students completed a randomized controlled trial evaluating whether the Raven robot could be used as an alternative training tool for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery FLS block transfer task on the da Vinci robot.

Two groups, one trained on the da Vinci and one trained on the Raven, were tested on a criterion FLS block transfer task on the da Vinci. These results provide evidence for the value of using the Raven robot for training prior to using the da Vinci surgical system for similar tasks.

The Moon Phases in a Paper Box. O uso de uma caixa fechada permite observar o contraste entre as diferentes fases sem necessidade de estar em uma sala escurecida. Da Vinci robotic surgical system leads the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques.

By using Da Vinci surgical robot for minimally invasive surgery, it brings a lot of advantages to the surgeons. Since , Da Vinci surgeries have been performed in 14 hospitals in domestic cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Until the end of , 3 cases of Da Vinci robotic surgery have been performed, covering various procedures of various surgical departments including the department of general surgery, urology, cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery, gynecology, and etc.

Robotic surgical technique has made remarkable achievements. Filler disfluencies--"uh" and " um "--are thought to serve distinct discourse functions. We examined fillers in spontaneous speech by youth with autism spectrum disorder ASD , who struggle with pragmatic language, and by youth with ASD who have achieved an "optimal outcome" OO , as well as in peers with typical….

Lying is a deliberate attempt to transmit messages that mislead others. Analysis of language behaviors holds great promise as an objective method of detecting deception. The current study reports on the frequency of use and acoustic nature of " um " and "like" during laboratory-elicited lying versus truth-telling.

Results obtained using a…. The Bunche- Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…. See Fed. DA installations. DA , a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye.

Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically on the development of low-cost, on-board hydrogen storage technologies capable of achieving high energy densities and fast kinetics for hydrogen uptake and release. As present-day technologies -- which rely on physical storage methods such as compressed hydrogen -- are incapable of attaining established Department of Energy DOE targets, development of materials-based approaches for storing hydrogen have garnered increasing attention.

Material-based storage technologies have potential to store hydrogen beyond twice the density of liquid hydrogen. While these centers made progress in identifying new storage materials, the challenges associated with the engineering of the system around a candidate storage material are in need of further advancement. In the DOE established the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence with the objective of developing innovative engineering concepts for materials-based hydrogen storage systems.

As a partner in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence, the Ford- UM -BASF team conducted a multi-faceted research program that addresses key engineering challenges associated with the development of materials-based hydrogen storage systems. First, we developed a novel framework that allowed for a material-based hydrogen storage system to be modeled and operated within a virtual fuel cell vehicle. This effort resulted in the ability to assess dynamic operating parameters and interactions between the storage system and fuel cell power plant, including the evaluation of performance throughout various drive cycles.

Second, we engaged in cost modeling of various incarnations of the storage systems. This analysis. Implantable microencapsulated dopamine DA : prolonged functional release of DA in denervated striatal tissue. Biodegradable controlled-release microcapsule systems made with the biocompatible biodegradable polyester excipient poly [DL-lactide-co-gly-colide] constitute an exciting new technology for drug delivery to the central nervous system CNS.

The present study describes functional observations indicating that implantation of dopamine DA microcapsules encapsulated within two different polymer excipients into denervated striatal tissue assures a prolonged release of the transmitter in vivo. This technology has a considerable potential for basic and possibly clinical research. We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset.

This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building.

This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments. Quantum correlated, highly non-degenerate photons can be used to synthesize disparate quantum nodes and link quantum processing over incompatible wavelengths, thereby constructing heterogeneous quantum systems for otherwise unattainable superior performance.

Existing techniques for correlated photons have been concentrated in the visible and near-IR domains, with the photon pairs residing within one micron. Here, we demonstrate direct generation and detection of high-purity photon pairs at room temperature with 3.

The pairs are created via spontaneous parametric downconversion in a lithium niobate waveguide with specially designed geometry and periodic poling. Quantum correlation measurement yields a high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 54, which indicates the strong correlation with the extremely non-degenerate photon pairs. Our system bridges existing quantum technology to the challenging mid-IR regime, where unprecedented applications are expected in quantum metrology and sensing, quantum communications, medical diagnostics, and so on.

The rocks include serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites together with talc- and quartz-carbonates. The high Cr of Al-chromites resembles supra-subduction zone SSZ peridotites and suggests derivation from the deeper portion of the mantle section with boninitic affinity. These mantle rocks equilibrated with boninitic melt have been generated by high melting degrees.

The high Cr of spinel and Fo content of olivine together with the narrow compositional range suggest a mantle residual origin. L'elaborazione del piano di trattamento rappresenta un momento molto delicato e complesso del processo terapeutico del disturbo da abuso di alcol DUA.

Se da una parte, le tecniche psicoanalitiche e comportamentali hanno fornito le basi della terapia psicologica dell'alcolismo, dall'altra, gli approcci basati sull'evidenza scientifica sono stati elaborati a partire dai principi del colloquio motivazionale e della terapia cognitivo-comportamentale.

Effect of k Da and k Da protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages. Garlic Allium sativum , traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis.

Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

Wuensche, C. The instrument bandpass is set by the response of the CCD and centered at 0. The data at all three bands 24, 70, and um are published here for the first time. Two sets of 24 um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on March 20, the second set of data was obtained on April Two sets of 70 um observations were obtained. The first set was obtained on April The second set was obtained on April 4.

Olofsson, observation IDs and were published by Vandenbussche et al. The 24 um observations were retrieved from the Spitzer archive. Lu, N. All observed targets are listed in Table 1. The catalogue is complete to 1mJy and, below this flux density, the incompleteness is corrected using two independent methods. The first method uses stars and the second uses optical counterparts of the ISOCAM galaxies; these methods yield consistent results.

We also apply an empirical flux density calibration using stars in the field. This article is a companion analysis to our paper Rocca-Volmerange et al. The p UM plasmid, isolated from a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate, confers resistance to ciprofloxacin CIP when transferred into the standard P.

CIP is an antibiotic of the quinolone family that is used to treat P. We cloned orf renamed crpP , for c iprofloxacin r esistance p rotein, p lasmid encoded into the pUCP20 shuttle vector. Using coupled enzymatic analysis, we determined that the activity of CrpP on CIP is ATP dependent, while little activity against norfloxacin was detected, suggesting that CIP may undergo phosphorylation. Using a recombinant His-tagged CrpP protein and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we also showed that CIP was phosphorylated prior to its degradation.

These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits.

The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction.

A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The establishment of a lunar base is technologically and financially challenging. Given the necessary resources and political support, it can be done.

In addition to the geopolitical obstacles, however, there are logistical problems involved in establishing such bases that can only be overcome with the acquisition of a significant transportation and communications network in the Earth-Moon spatial region. Considering the significant number of payloads that will be required in this process, the mass-specific cost of launching these payloads, and the added risk and cost of human presence in space, it is clearly desirable to automate major parts of such an operation.

One very costly and time-consuming factor in this picture is the delivery of payloads to the Moon. Foreseeable payloads would include atmospheric modules, inflatable habitat kits, energy and oxygen plant elements, ground vehicles, laboratory modules, crew supplies, etc.

The duration of high-risk human presence on the Moon could be greatly reduced if all such payloads were delivered to the prospective base site in advance of crew arrival. From LLO, the lander shuttles payloads down to the lunar surface, where, by means of some resident, detachable unloading device, it deploys the payloads and returns to orbit.

The general goal is for the system to perform with maximum payload capability, automation, and reliability, while also minimizing environmental hazards, servicing needs, and mission costs. The complete study includes a system description, along with a preliminary cost analysis and a design status assessment.

This work is presented as a theoretical essay on some facts from the history of astronomy analyzed according to the theory of reflective abstraction developed by Jean Piaget and collaborators Its aim is to understand the reasons that led to different astronomers, at the same historical period and culture, to "see" quite different evidences about the same phenomenon. In addition, we intend to facilitate the understanding of science as a human construction, subject to a time epoch and the ways of understanding of each scientist.

This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule i. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models.

The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models. Key features of the SAC are…. Seed size in higher plants is determined by the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissue. Here, we describe another RING-type protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, encoded by DA 2, which regulates seed size by restricting cell proliferation in the maternal integuments of developing seeds.

The da mutant forms large seeds, while overexpression of DA 2 decreases seed size of wild-type plants. Further results reveal that DA 2 interacts physically with DA 1 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings define the genetic and molecular mechanisms of three ubiquitin-related proteins DA 1, DA 2, and EOD1 in seed size control and indicate that they are promising targets for crop improvement.

Vi- da : vitiligo diagnostic assistance mobile application. Vitiligo is a skin disorder in which white patches of depigmentation appear on different parts of the body. Usually, patients come to hospitals or clinics to have their vitiligo conditions assessed. This can be very tiring to the patients, as vitiligo treatments usually take a relatively long period of time, which can range from months to years. To address this challenge, we present in this paper a prototype of an Android-based mobile application called Vi- DA , which stands for Vitiligo Diagnostic Assistance.

Vi- DA consists of three subsystems, which are user sign-up subsystem, camera and image analysis subsystem, and progress report subsystem. The mobile application was developed in Java programming language and uses MySQL as the database system. Vi- DA adopts a vitiligo segmentation algorithm to segment input image into normal skin area, vitiligo skin area, and non-skin area. Results showed that Vi- DA gave comparable results to the previous system implemented in Matlab.

User acceptance testing results also showed that all respondents agreed on the usefulness of the system and agreed to use Vi- DA again in the future. Vi- DA benefits both dermatologists and patients as not only a computer-aided diagnosis CAD tool but also as a smart application that can be used for self-assessment at home. De um total de 2. A multiyear effort to identify new natural products was built on a hypothesis that both phytotoxins from plant pathogens and antimicrobial compounds might demonstrate herbicidal activity.

The discovery of one such compound, mevalocidin, is described in the current report. Mevalocidin was discovered from static cultures of two unrelated fungal isolates designated Rosellinia DA and Fusarium DA The chemical structure was confirmed by independent synthesis. Mevalocidin demonstrated broad spectrum post-emergence activity on grasses and broadleaves and produced a unique set of visual symptoms on treated plants suggesting a novel mode of action.

Mevalocidin was rapidly absorbed in a representative grass and broadleaf plant. Translocation occurred from the treated leaf to other plant parts including roots confirming phloem as well as xylem mobility.

Mevalocidin is a unique phytotoxin based on its chemistry, with the uncommon attribute of demonstrating both xylem and phloem mobility in grass and broadleaf plants. Hamann, Fred; Barlow, Thomas A. We have no information on changes in other z sub a approximately equal z sub e absorption lines. Continued monitoring since November shows no clear changes in any of the absorptions between approximately and A rest. The short timescale of the variability less than or approximately equal to 2. Photoionization calculations place the absorbing clouds within approximately pc of the continuum source.

The full range of line ionizations from Ne VIII lambda to C III lambda in optically thin gas no Lyman limit implies that the absorbing regions span a factor of more than approximately 10 in distance or approximately in density. The metallicity is roughly solar or higher, with nitrogen possibly more enhanced by factors of a few.

The clouds might contribute significant line emission if they nearly envelop the QSO. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link z sub a approximately equal to z sub e systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers.

We show that the. Hoff, B. In the baseline case, acrylic microwave windows were mounted between three of the waveguide coupling cavities in the anode block vacuum housing and the output waveguides. Each of the six 3 cm deep coupling cavities is separated from its corresponding anode cavity by a 1. In the baseline case, vacuum side window breakdown was observed to initiate at single waveguide output powers close to 20 MW. In the new window configuration, three Air Force Research Laboratory-designed, vacuum-rated directional coupler waveguide segments were mounted between the coupling cavities and the microwave windows.

The inclusion of the vacuum side power couplers moved the microwave windows an additional 30 cm away from the anode apertures. Additionally, the Lucite microwave windows were replaced with polycarbonate windows and the microwave window mounts were redesigned to better maintain waveguide continuity in the region around the microwave windows. Simulations were performed to investigate likely causes for the window breakdown in the original configuration. Results from these simulations have shown that in the original configuration, at typical operating voltage and magnetic field ranges, electrons emitted from the anode block microwave apertures strike the windows with a mean kinetic energy of 33 keV with a standard deviation of 14 keV.

The effects of the primary aperture electron. We have no information on changes in other za approximately equal ze absorption lines. The presence of highly ionized Ne VIII lambda absorption near the QSO supports recent studies that link za approximately equal to ze systems with X-ray 'wamr absorbers. Trace element composition of sulfides and O, C, Sr and S isotopic data are assessed to constrain the evolution and potential fluid and metal sources of the Um Garayat gold deposit.

Ore microscopy and BSE investigations of quartz veins show blocky arsenopyrite and pyrite replaced in part by pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and gersdorffite. Free-milling gold occurs commonly in close association with the late sulfides, and along fractures in pyrite. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of sulfides shows the recrystallized pyrite enriched in most trace elements, while blocky pyrite contains only some traces of arsenic.

Detected concentrations of gold up to 17 ppm were only reported in arsenopyrite disseminated in quartz veins. The generally homogenous sulfur, C, O, Sr isotope data are suggestive of metamorphogenic fluids, likely produced from dominantly mafic volcanic rocks at the greenschist-amphibolite facies transition.

The DA transporter DAT , a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine DA levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport efflux. Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

WT-DATs were used as controls. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. Leonardo da Vinci meets celiac disease. Leonardo da Vinci's face symmetry derives from 3 equal craniofacial segments: trichion-nasion tn , which represents the superior third of the face, nasion-subnasal ns that is the medium third of the face, and subnasal-gnathion sg that is the length of the lower third of the face. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between facial asymmetry and CD in childhood and adulthood.

We studied biopsy-proven patients with CD 76 children and 50 adults and healthy controls 43 children and 59 adults. Their faces were photographed; the pictures were edited using a software program to calculate the facial segments. The tn length was significantly different between adult celiac and adult controls 7. The cutoff of 6. Adults, but not children, with celiac disease show a forehead extension significantly greater than controls, but this test's specificity appears too low to be used in the screening of CD.

DA 1 receptors modulation in rat isolated trachea. We have previously demonstrated that low dose of inhaled dopamine 0. To understand better these dopamine effect, rat tracheal smooth muscle was used as a model to evaluate the responses of beta2-, alpha1-, alpha2-adrenergic and DA 1 and DA 2 dopaminergic antagonists. Contractile responses were recorded with an isometric transducer in a polygraph Letica, Spain. Contraction was induced by accumulative doses of acetylcholine 0. Low concentration 0.

Cholinergic contraction was completely reversed at 6 mM of dopamine. This biphasic dopaminergic response was not blocked by incubation with beta2-adrenergic antagonist propranolol 0. Dopaminergic relaxation in rat trachea is mediated by DA 1 rather than by DA 2 receptors; and adrenergic receptors are not involved in such dopamine-induced response.

Finally, DA 1 antagonist SCH exerts intrinsic contractile activity on airway smooth muscle that deserves further research. The U. We have developed a digital reflectance spectral library, with management and spectral analysis software. The library includes spectra of samples some samples include a series of grain sizes measured from approximately 0. The spectral resolution Full Width Half Maximum of the reflectance data is um and um.

Library management software lets users search on parameters e. Minerals from borate, carbonate, chloride, element, halide, hydroxide, nitrate, oxide, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, sulfosalt, and the silicate cyclosilicate, inosilicate, nesosilicate, phyllosilicate, sorosilicate, and tectosilicate classes are represented.

X-Ray and chemical analyses are tabulated for many of the entries, and all samples have been evaluated for spectral purity. The library also contains end and intermediate members for the olivine, garnet, scapolite, montmorillonite, muscovite, jarosite, and alunite solid-solution series. We have included representative spectra of H2O ice, kerogen, ammonium-bearing minerals, rare-earth oxides, desert varnish coatings, kaolinite crystallinity series, kaolinite-smectite series, zeolite series, and an extensive evaporite series.

Because of the importance of vegetation to climate-change studies we have include 17 spectra of tree leaves, bushes, and grasses. The library and software are available as a series of U. Open File reports. PC user software is available to convert the binary data to ascii files a separate U. Additionally, a binary data files are on line at the U. The library search software enables a user to search on documentation parameters as well as spectral features.

We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM , obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds.

Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions.

Output control of da Vinci surgical system's surgical graspers. The number of robot-assisted surgeries performed with the da Vinci surgical system has increased significantly over the past decade. The articulating movements of the robotic surgical grasper are controlled by grip controls at the master console. The user interface has been implicated as one contributing factor in surgical grasping errors. The goal of our study was to characterize and evaluate the user interface of the da Vinci surgical system in controlling surgical graspers.

An angular manipulator with force sensors was used to increment the grip control angle as grasper output angles were measured. Input force at the grip control was simultaneously measured throughout the range of motion. Pressure film was used to assess the maximum grasping force achievable with the endoscopic grasping tool.

The da Vinci robot's grip control angular input has a nonproportional relationship with the grasper instrument output. The grip control mechanism presents an intrinsic resistant force to the surgeon's fingertips and provides no haptic feedback. The da Vinci Maryland graspers are capable of applying up to 5. The angular and force input at the grip control of the da Vinci robot's surgical graspers is nonproportional to the grasper instrument's output.

Understanding the true relationship of the grip control input to grasper instrument output may help surgeons understand how to better control the surgical graspers and promote fewer grasping errors. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of Pan DA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users.

Through a system-wide job database, the Pan DA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance.

This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process. Maeno, T. We will describe how Pan DA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing.

Pan DA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users.

We will describe how Pan DA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future. The short form of the recombinant CAL-A-type lipase UM from the smut fungus Ustilago maydis exhibits an inherent trans-fatty acid selectivity.

The two lipases with [corrected] the highest identity are a lipase from Sporisorium reilianum and the prototypic CAL-A. Here, we show for the first time the recombinant expression of two versions of lipase UM the full-length form lipUMf and an Nterminally truncated form lip UMs. Although both forms of lipase UM could be expressed functionally in E. The functional expression of the N-terminally truncated lipase was further optimized by the appropriate choice of the E.

Primary characteristics of the recombinant lipase are its pH optimum in the range of 6. As is typical for lipases, lip UM shows preference for long chain fatty acid esters with myristic acid ester C ester being the most preferred one. Therefore, the short form of this U. Da Vinci surgical system is the most advanced minimally invasive surgical platform in the world, and this system has been widely used in cardiac surgery, urology surgery, gynecologic surgery and general surgery.

Although the application of this system was relatively late in thyroid surgery, the number of thyroidectomy with Da Vinci surgical system is increasing quickly. Having reviewed recent studies and summarized clinical experience, compared with traditional open operation, the robotic thyroidectomy has the same surgical safety and effectiveness in selective patients with thyroid cancer. In this paper, several aspects on this novel operation were demonstrated, including surgical indications and contraindications, the approaches, surgical procedures and postoperative complications, in order to promote the rational application of Da Vinci surgical system in thyroidectomy.

Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean. The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions Kp 2o or less in The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models.

Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data.

Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission Evidenze scientifiche]. La terapia farmacologica nei pazienti con disturbo da uso di alcol riveste un ruolo centrale nel progetto terapeutico, altamente contestualizzato in un approccio multidisciplinare. Nuovi approcci sperimentali stanno cercando di ampliare tale gamma attraverso l'utilizzo di farmaci off-label.

Fondamentale risulta il follow-up per valutare la ritenzione in trattamento e il monitoraggio degli outcome alcologici. Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28, MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy.

One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd. Generation of narrow energy spread ion beams via collisionless shock waves using ultra-intense 1 um wavelength laser systems. Albert, Felicie; Pak, A. In this work, we report on electrostatic collisionless shock wave acceleration experiments that produced proton beams with peak energies between These beams of ions were created by driving an electrostatic collisionless shock wave in a tailored near critical density plasma target using the ultra-intense ps duration Titan laser that operates at a wavelength of 1 um.

The near critical density target was produced through the ablation of an initially 0. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis. Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line Maliaodou and a wild line Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage.

Sequence analysis revealed that 1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; 2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; 3 high heterozygous rates 0. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity. Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins NLP are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups.

Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death.

The expression of the NLP genes in P. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans.

Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae , is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max L. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci QTLs underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes.

These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. Genetic architecture of wild soybean Glycine soja response to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. The soybean cyst nematode SCN is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage.

To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study GWAS was conducted using wild soybean Glycine soja accessions with over 42, single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs to understand the genetic architecture of G. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1.

Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci QTLs , and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding NB -ARC disease resistance gene Glyma. Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes.

The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A.

These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycine soja.

Under the optimal conditions: ratio of liquid to solid Fourier-transform infrared spectra FT-IR indicated the chemical structures of them. Moreover, they exhibited high antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, the present study suggested that UAE was a very effective method to extract polysaccharides from Glycine soja and the polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for medicine and function food.

Customer satisfaction and response to AOS. Passenger surveys were conducted in each of three successive springs in order to track passenger perception of changes in service quality during AOS implementation. In general, no improvement in passenger perceptions was observed relative to a high b Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [ Glycine max L.

The molecular mechanism of the soybean response to P. GmWRKY31 was targeted to the nucleus, where it bound to the W-box and acted as an activator of gene transcription. Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max L. Pathogenesis-related proteins PR proteins play crucial roles in the plant defense system. GmPRP expression was upregulated in soybean leaves infected with P.

GmPRP was localized in the cell plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Recombinant GmPRP protein exhibited ribonuclease activity and significant inhibition of hyphal growth of P. These results indicated that the GmPRP protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. Close, Laird M. The most productive visible AO system to date is our 6. On-sky long exposures 60s achieve AO camera in 0. Phenotypic evaluation and genetic dissection of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in the Chinese soybean mini core collection.

Phytophthora root and stem rot PRR caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most serious diseases affecting soybean Glycine max L. The most economical and environmentally-friendly way to control the disease is the exploration and utilization of resistant varieties.

We screened a soybean mini core collection composed of germplasm accessions for resistance against eleven P. Soybean accessions from the Southern and Huanghuai regions, especially the Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Fujian provinces, had the most varied and broadest spectrum of resistance. Based on gene postulation, Rps1b, Rps1c, Rps4, Rps7 and novel resistance genes were identified in resistant accessions. Consequently, association mapping of resistance to each isolate was performed with 1, single nucleotide polymorphism SNP markers.

A total of 14 marker-trait associations for Phytophthora resistance were identified. Among them, four were located in known PRR resistance loci intervals, five were located in other disease resistance quantitative trait locus QTL regions, and five associations unmasked novel loci for PRR resistance. In addition, we also identified candidate genes related to resistance. This is the first P.

The resistance reaction analyses provided an excellent database of resistant resources and genetic variations for future breeding programs. The SNP markers associated with resistance will facilitate marker-assisted selection MAS in breeding programs for resistance to PRR, and the candidate genes may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying P. The RxLR effector Avh from Phytophthora sojae requires plasma membrane localization to induce plant cell death.

Here we have characterized in detail the P. Silencing of Avh in P. Through the assay of promoting infection by Phytophthora capsici to Nicotiana benthamiana, we further confirmed this virulence role. An N-terminal motif within Avh was important for membrane localization and cell death-inducing activity.

Avh was important for the pathogen's full virulence on soybean. Avh could also promote infection by P. The Diaporthe sojae species complex: Phylogenetic re-assessment of pathogens associated with soybean, cucurbits and other field crops. Phytopathogenic species of Diaporthe are associated with a number of soybean diseases including seed decay, pod and stem blight and stem canker and lead to considerable crop production losses worldwide.

Accurate morphological identification of the species that cause these diseases has been difficult. In this study, we determined the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries of Diaporthe longicolla, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Diaporthe sojae and closely related taxa. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this large complex of taxa is comprised of soybean pathogens as well as species associated with herbaceous field crops and weeds.

Diaporthe arctii, Diaporthe batatas, D. The seed decay pathogen D. A new species, Diaporthe ueckerae on Cucumis melo, is introduced with description and illustrations. Gene duplication and fragment recombination drive functional diversification of a superfamily of cytoplasmic effectors in Phytophthora sojae. Phytophthora and other oomycetes secrete a large number of putative host cytoplasmic effectors with conserved FLAK motifs following signal peptides, termed crinkling and necrosis inducing proteins CRN , or Crinkler.

Here, we first investigated the evolutionary patterns and mechanisms of CRN effectors in Phytophthora sojae and compared them to two other Phytophthora species. The genes encoding CRN effectors could be divided into 45 orthologous gene groups OGG , and most OGGs unequally distributed in the three species, in which each underwent large number of gene gains or losses, indicating that the CRN genes expanded after species evolution in Phytophthora and evolved through pathoadaptation.

The expanded genes in P. Three different mechanisms that drove gene duplication or recombination were identified. Overall, these results suggest that gene duplication and fragment recombination may be two mechanisms that drive the expansion and neofunctionalization of the CRN family in P. Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae P.

It showed the highest homolgy of The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was bp containing a bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of amino acids. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P.

The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. Martinache, Frantz; Guyon, O. While the existence of large numbers of extrasolar planets around solar type stars has been unambiguously demonstrated by radial velocity, transit and microlensing surveys, attempts at direct imaging with AO -equipped large telescopes remain unsuccessful.

Because they supposedly offer more favorable contrast ratios, young systems consitute prime targets for imaging. Such observations will provide key insights on the formation and early evolution of planets and disks. Current surveys are limited by modest AO performance which limits inner working angle to 0. This calls for a major change of approach in the techniques used for direct imaging of the direct vicinity of stars.

A sensible way to do the job is to combine coronagraphy and Extreme AO. Only accurate and fast control of the wavefront will permit the detection of high contrast planetary companions within 10 AU. This platform includes a actuator MEMS deformable mirror for high accuracy wavefront correction and a PIAA coronagraph which delivers high contrast at 0. Key technologies have been validated in the laboratory: high performance wavefront sensing schemes, spider vanes and central obstruction removal, and lossless beam apodization.

The project is designed to be highly flexible to continuously integrate new technologies with high scientific payoff. Modulation of the November AO on the spring AO -ENSO connection is mainly through the constructive and destructive superposition of the November and spring AO associated sea surface temperature SST anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific in spring and summer, as well as the SST anomalies developed further in the tropical Pacific via the positive air-sea feedback.

AO wavefront sensing detector developments at ESO. The required combination of fast frame rate, high quantum efficiency, low noise, large number and size of pixels, and low image lag can often only be met by specialized custom developments. The paper outlines: a the multi-phased development plan that will ensure detectors are available on-time for EELT first-light AO systems, b results of design studies performed by industry during including a comparison of the most promising technologies, c results from CMOS technology demonstrators that were built and tested over the past two years to assess and validate various technologies at the pixel level, their fulfillment of critical requirements especially read noise and speed , and scalability to full-size.

For full operability, full-scale devices will be needed. A Phytophthora sojae cytoplasmic effector mediates disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Each oomycete pathogen encodes a large number of effectors. Some effectors can be used in crop disease resistance breeding, such as to accelerate R gene cloning and utilisation.

Since cytoplasmic effectors may cause acute physiological changes in host cells at very low concentrations, we assume that some of these effectors can serve as functional genes for transgenic plants. We showed that its expression did not significantly affect the growth and development of N. Furthermore, we found that expression of heat-shock-protein and cytochrome-P encoding genes were unregulated in PsCRNtransgenic N. Thus, PsCRN may be used to improve plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

Results will help determine the total multiplicity fraction and multiplicity functions of M dwarfs, which are crucial steps towards understanding their evolution and formation mechanics. Through its robotic, laser-guided, and automated system, the Robo- AO instrument has yielded the largest adaptive-optics M dwarf survey to date. I developed a graphical user interface to quickly analyze this data. This program can be applied to other datasets and was successfully tested by re-analyzing observations from a separate Robo- AO survey.

Further observations were done with the Keck II telescope by using its NIRC2 imager to follow up on ten select targets for the existence and physical association of companions. Future research will yield insights into low-mass stellar formation and provide a database of nearby M dwarf multiples that will potentially assist ongoing and future surveys for planets around these stars, such as the NASA TESS mission.

Phytophthora root rot of soybean [Glycine max L. It exists in root and stem tissues as mycelium, wherein it can form oospores which subsequently germinate to release motile, infectious zoospores. Molecular assays detecting DNA of P. In this study, we describe primers and a bifunctional probe with specificity to a gypsy-like retroelement in the P. The assay specifically detected 13 different P. A diagnostic limit of detection of 34 fg total P. Results will help determine the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs as a function of primary mass, which is a crucial step towards understanding their evolution and formation mechanics.

Following the preliminary results from this data analysis tool, further observations were done with the Keck II telescope by using its NIRC2 imager to follow up on ten select targets for the existence and physical association of companions. We will present a preliminary estimate for the multiplicity rate of wide M dwarf companions after accounting for observation limitations and the completeness of our search.

AO corrected satellite imaging from Mount Stromlo. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics have been developing adaptive optics systems for space situational awareness. As part of this program we have developed satellite imaging using compact adaptive optics systems for small m telescopes such as those operated by Electro Optic Systems EOS from the Mount Stromlo Observatory. We have focused on making compact, simple, and high performance AO systems using modern high stroke high speed deformable mirrors and EMCCD cameras.

Homologous RXLR effectors from Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Phytophthora sojae suppress immunity in distantly related plants. Diverse pathogens secrete effector proteins into plant cells to manipulate host cellular processes. Oomycete pathogens contain large complements of predicted effector genes defined by an RXLR host cell entry motif.

Only a small subset of these genes is conserved in related oomycetes from the Phytophthora genus. HaRxL96 and PsAvh are induced during the early stages of infection and carry a functional RXLR motif that is sufficient for protein uptake into plant cells. Both effectors can suppress immune responses in soybean.

Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing HaRxL96 or PsAvh exhibit elevated susceptibility to virulent and avirulent Hpa, as well as decreased callose deposition in response to non-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae. Both effectors interfere with defense marker gene induction, but do not affect salicylic acid biosynthesis. Together, these experiments demonstrate that evolutionarily conserved effectors from different oomycete species can suppress immunity in plant species that are divergent from the source pathogen's host.

Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus favus and Aspergillus parasitic and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional prep Candida boidinii and Candida sojae yeasts were isolated from energy cane bagasse and plague-insects.

Both have fast xylose uptake rate and produce great amounts of xylitol, which are interesting features for food and 2G ethanol industries. Because they lack published genomes, we have sequenced and assembled them, offering new possibilities for gene prospection. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens of soybean.

Phytophthora root rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important diseases in the Midwest US, causing losses of up to 44 million bushels per year. Disease may also be caused by P. Chusei-Hikarikuro and Sachiyutaka, and fungal growth and zoospore release of a Phytophthora sojae isolate were investigated under laboratory conditions. The application of Production of antioomycete compounds active against the phytopathogens Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides by clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi.

A total of strains belonging to 14 genera of clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi EPF were screened for activities against two economically important plant pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides. To identify the antioomycete compounds produced by EPF, the extracts of 13 highly active EPF strains were characterized in detail by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometric detection and antioomycete assay.

The antioomycete activity of several Metarhizium extracts was associated with previously isolated aurovertins, fungerin, N- methyloxodecenoyl pyrroline, and N- methyloxodecanoyl pyrroline. The depsipeptide beauvericin was confirmed to be one of the active principles of three strains of Isaria tenuipes, which strongly inhibited mycelial growth of both P.

Two known bioactive metabolites, paecilosetin and aranorosinol A, together with a novel and potent antioomycete compound, farinomalein, were isolated from the extracts of Isaria farinosa and all compounds were confirmed to have antioomycete activity. Identification of 8 antioomycete compounds from 13 clavicipitioid EPF demonstrated a new potential use of EPF as a source of compounds for the control of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes.

A genome-wide association study of seed composition traits in wild soybean Glycine soja. Cultivated soybean Glycine max is a major agricultural crop that provides a crucial source of edible protein and oil. Decreased amounts of saturated palmitic acid and increased amounts of unsaturated oleic acid in soybean oil are considered optimal for human cardiovascular health and therefore there has considerable interest by breeders in discovering genes affecting the relative concentrations of these fatty acids.

Using a genome-wide association GWA approach with nearly 30, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs , we investigated the genetic basis of protein, oil and all five fatty acid levels in seeds from a sample of wild soybeans Glycine soja , the progenitor of domesticated soybean, to identify quantitative trait loci QTLs affecting these seed composition traits. We discovered 29 SNPs located on ten different chromosomes that are significantly associated with the seven seed composition traits in our wild soybean sample.

Eight SNPs co-localized with QTLs previously uncovered in linkage or association mapping studies conducted with cultivated soybean samples, while the remaining SNPs appeared to be in novel locations. Two SNPs were common for two or more fatty acids, suggesting loci with pleiotropic effects. We also identified some candidate genes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism and regulation.

This is the first GWA study conducted on seed composition traits solely in wild soybean populations, and a number of QTLs were found that have not been previously discovered. Robo- AO is observing every Kepler planetary candidate host star KOI in high resolution, made possible using the unprecedented efficiency provided by automation of LGS adaptive optics.

Nearby contaminating stars may be the source of false positive transit signals or, if a bona fide planet is in the system, dilute the observed transit signal, resulting in underestimated planet radii. In observations, we find stars within 4" approximately the Kepler pixel scale of KOIs.

In particular, we find 26 rocky, habitable zone planets with contaminating nearby stars, 8 of which are now more likely to have large gaseous envelopes. We present evidence that the majority of these nearby stars are unbound, and use the likely bound stars to test theories of planetary formation and evolution within multiple star systems.

Finally, we discuss future all-sky, kilo-target surveys made possible by the construction of a Southern Robo- AO analog. We will present the results from searching for companions around over 3, Kepler planet hosts in We will describe our first data release covering planet candidate hosts, and give a preview of ongoing results including improved statistics on the likelihood of false positive planet detections in the Kepler dataset, many new planets in multiple star systems, and new exotic multiple star systems containing Kepler planets.

We will also describe the automated Robo- AO survey data reduction methods, including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designed for extremely large adaptive optics surveys. Our first data release covered objects, searching for companions from 0. We measured the overall nearby-star-probability for Kepler planet candidates to be 7. We will also discuss plans to extend the survey to other transiting planet missions such as K2 and TESS as Robo- AO is in the process of being re-deployed to the 2.

Electromagnetic DM technology meets future AO demands. A LVDS multi-drop cable connects up to 32 actuator modules. With the actuator module, accompanying PCB and multi-drop system the deformable mirror technology is made modular in its mechanics and electronics. Latest results of the deformable mirror technology development are presented. It is widely accepted that the family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades.

By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v Our results suggested that soybean family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution.

Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja , is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

This study develops, using data before AOS in and and after AOS in and , implementation data on AATAs on-time performance and vehicle-to-vehicle timing of transfers at four major transfer location. Systematic evaluation of on-ti The heart of the 6. We fabricated a high order mode pyramid wavefront sensor similar to that now successfully used at the Large Binocular Telescope.

These relatively high visible wavelength Strehls are enabled by our powerful combination of a next generation ASM and a Pyramid WFS with controlled modes and Hz sample speeds similar to that used successfully on-sky at the LBT. Currently only the Vis AO science camera is used for lab testing of Mag AO , but this high level of measured performance nm rms promises even higher Strehls with our IR science cameras.

To eliminate non-common path vibrations, dispersions, and optical errors the Vis AO science camera is fed by a common path advanced triplet ADC and is piggy-backed on the Pyramid WFS optical board itself. Also a high-speed shutter can be used to block periods of poor correction. The entire system passed CDR in June , and we finished the closed-loop system level testing phase in December The second companion object 1.

Because of a positioning error of the telescope and AO 's faintness at that time m approx. A is thus ejecting high velocity, highly ionized gas into the surrounding IGM. We discuss in Sec. We hypothesize that some of the 30 faint objects in the 77 sec. Effect of physicochemical parameters on the polygalacturonase of an Aspergillus sojae mutant using wheat bran, an agro-industrial waste, via solid-state fermentation. Polygalacturonases PGs are valuable enzymes of the food industry; therefore it is of great importance to discover new and GRAS PG-producing microbial strains.

In this study, PG enzyme produced from a high PG activity producer mutant Aspergillus sojae using wheat bran at the flask scale under pre-optimized conditions of solid-state fermentation SSF was biochemically characterized. The crude PG enzyme showed optimum activity in the pH range 4. The mutant A. The inactivation energy Ed was determined as Soybean Glycine max [L.

Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis.

Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein with multiple essential regulation functions through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Even though its functions in the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway were very well characterized. The functions of ubiquitin genes in regulating alkaline stress response are not fully established.

In this study, we identified 12 potential UBQ genes in Glycine soja genome, and analyzed their evolutionary relationship, conserved domains and promoter cis-elements. We also explored the expression profiles of G. We found that the expression of GsUBQ10 was significantly induced by alkaline stress, and function of GsUBQ10 was characterized using overexpression transgenic alfalfa Medicago sativa.

Our results suggested that GsUBQ10 transgenic lines significantly improved the alkaline tolerance in alfalfa. The GsUBQ10 transgenic lines showed lower relative membrane permeability, lower malon dialdehyde content and higher catalase activity than in the wild-type plants.

This indicates that GsUBQ10 is involved in regulating the reactive oxygen species accumulation under alkaline stress. This article is protected by copyright. We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager SCEx AO verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor CLOWFS and focal plane wavefront control "speckle nulling".

Por s culos, acreditou-se que o magnetismo s se manifestava em metais, como aqueles contendo ferro; hoje, a imagem mais comum de um m talvez seja a daquelas plaquinhas flex veis coladas geladeira com propagandas dos mais diversos tipos.

O leitor conseguiria imaginar um material puramente org nico daqueles que formam os seres vivos como magn tico? E m s do tamanho de mol culas? None given. From overview and conclusion:Keck Telescope case study. Objectives-low cost, good sky coverage. Approach--natural guide star at 0. AO -optimized CCD should b every effective. Optimizing td is very effective. Spatial Coadding is not effective except perhaps at extreme low light levels.

Wild soybean Glycine soja has a high tolerance to environmental challenges. It is a model species for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of salt-alkaline stresses. Although many NAC transcription factors play important roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses, such as salt, osmotic and cold, their mode of action in alkaline stress resistance is largely unknown. In our study, we identified a G. GsNAC was demonstrated to be a nuclear-localized protein in onion epidermal cells and possessed transactivation activity in yeast cells.

Moreover, overexpression of GsNAC in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to alkaline stress at the seedling and mature stages, but reduced ABA sensitivity. Moreover, this mutation could phenotypically promoted or compromised plant growth under alkaline stress, implying that GsNAC may contribute to alkaline stress.

Close, L. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan 0. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure 60s r' 0. Adaptive optics AO corrects distortions created by atmospheric turbulence and delivers diffraction-limited images on ground-based telescopes. The vastly improved spatial resolution and sensitivity has been utilized for studying everything from the magnetic fields of sunspots upto the internal dynamics of high-redshift galaxies.

This thesis about AO science from small and large telescopes is divided into two parts: Robo- AO and magnetar kinematics. In the first part, I discuss the construction and performance of the world's first fully autonomous visible light AO system, Robo- AO , at the Palomar inch telescope. Robo- AO operates extremely efficiently with an overhead AO programs observing a total of over 7, targets since May The full-width at half maximum achieved is milli-arcsecond.

I describe how Robo- AO is used to constrain the evolutionary models of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars by measuring resolved spectral energy distributions of stellar multiples in the visible band, more than doubling the current sample. I conclude this part with a discussion of possible future improvements to the Robo- AO system.

Measuring the proper motions of five magnetars with a precision of upto 0. AO inhibits O2- production by human macrophages. AO is a semisynthetic monoglycosylceramide derived from O-glycosilated sphingosine, with a chemical structure similar to the glycolipids present in many mammalian tissues. In the epidermis monoglycosylceramides contribute to consolidate the structure of cutaneous layers. It has been recently shown that sphingosine and its derivatives are potent inhibitors of Protein kinase C, and block the 'respiratory burst' of phagocitic cells.

In macrophages, like in neutrophils, the reactive oxygen intermediates are produced by a membrane associated enzymatic complex, NADPH-oxidase, which is activated by Protein kinase C. This study demonstrates that AO is able to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen intermediates in human monocytes and macrophages stimulated by phorbol ester and chemotactic tetrapeptide, suggesting a potential clinical application of AO in the treatment of inflammatory dermatoses.

Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja. Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat.

B, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase F3'5'H. The new allele was designated as w1-lp. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele.

Flower petals of B contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased.

The cDNA of B had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants.

B may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. B may be a useful tool for studies of.

The mechanisms responsible for the time dependence of the properties are discussed and mathematical models used in the derivation of the property values from experimental data are presented. The thermoelectric properties for each polarity type of the alloy are presented as a function of temperature for various operating times. We tasked the SAG members with providing the information required on case studies and Ectopic overexpression of a novel Glycine soja stress-induced plasma membrane intrinsic protein increases sensitivity to salt and dehydration in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants.

Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins PIPs belong to the aquaporin family and facilitate water movement across plasma membranes. Existing data indicate that PIP genes are associated with the abilities of plants to tolerate certain stress conditions.

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing GsPIP2;1 grew normally under unstressed and cold conditions, but exhibited depressed tolerance to salt and dehydration stresses. Moreover, greater changes in water potential were detected in the transgenic A. These results, deviating from those obtained in previous reports, provide new insights into the relationship between PIPs and abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

The wavefront controller for the Keck Observatory AO system consists of two separate real-time control loops: a tip-tilt control loop to remove tilt from the incoming wavefront, and a deformable mirror control loop to remove higher-order aberrations. In this paper, we describe these control loops and analyze their performance using diagnostic data acquired during the integration and testing of the AO system on the telescope.

Disturbance rejection curves for the controllers are calculated from the experimental data and compared to theory. Pott, J. In this contribution, we review recent results and significant progress made on the development of key items of our stratgey to achieve a piston stability of up to nm during a science exposure. We present an overview of our vibration control strategies for optical path and tip-tilt stabilization, involving accelerometer based real-time vibration measurements, vibration sensitive active control of actuators, and the development of a dynamical model of the LBT.

Secondarily, we assessed the difference in inter- and intraobserver agreement of the AO classification in relation to geographical location, level of training, and subspecialty. No difference was observed by location, except for an apparent difference between participants from India and Australia classifying type B fractures. No statistically significant associations were observed comparing interobserver agreement by level of training and no differences were shown comparing subspecialties.

Intra-rater reproducibility was "substantial" for fracture types and "fair" for fracture groups with no difference accounting for location, training level, or specialty. O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. Previous secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS studies of extended impact features from LDEF capture cell experiment AO showed that it is possible to distinguish natural and man-made particle impacts based on the chemical composition of projectile residues.

The same measurement technique has now been applied to specially prepared gold target impacts from experiment AO in order to identify the origins of projectiles that left deposits too thin to be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive x-ray EDX spectroscopy. The results indicate that SIMS may be the method of choice for the analysis of impact deposits on a variety of sample surfaces.

SIMS was also used to determine the isotopic compositions of impact residues from several natural projectiles. Within the precision of the measurements all analyzed residues show isotopically normal compositions.

Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, Hop AO 1 and Hop AO 2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P.

This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of Hop AO homologs encoded by P. While neither additional operating costs nor operating costs savings were traceable to AOS at this time, the implications of this report, wh Gratadour, D.

The E-ELT is a 39m diameter telescope to see first light in the early s. To build this critical component of the telescope operations, the astronomical community is facing technical challenges, emerging from the combination of high data transfer bandwidth, low latency and high throughput requirements, similar to the identified critical barriers on the road to Exascale.

With Green Flash, we will propose technical solutions, assess these enabling technologies through prototyping and assemble a full scale demonstrator to be validated with a simulator and tested on sky. Our strategy is based on a strong interaction between academic and industrial partners. Components specifications and system requirements are derived from the AO application.

Industrial partners lead the development of enabling technologies aiming at innovative tailored solutions with potential wide application range. The academic partners provide the missing links in the ecosystem, targeting their application with mainstream solutions.

This increases both the value and market opportunities of the developed products. A prototype harboring all the features is used to assess the performance. It also provides the proof of concept for a resilient modular solution to equip a large scale European scientific facility, while containing the development cost by providing opportunities for return on investment. Its unique diffraction-limited wavelengths of 0.

My research with Mag AO demonstrates that circumplanetary disks could be ubiquitous among young giant planets. I later carried out a survey using ALMA to image accretion disks around several wide planet-mass companions at 1. This is the first systematic study aiming to measure the size, mass, and structure of planetary disks. However, except for FW Tau C which was shown to actually be a low-mass star from the dynamical mass measurement no disks around the companions were found in my ALMA survey.

This surprising null result implies that circumplanetary disks are much more compact and denser than expected, so they are faint and optically thick in the radio wavelengths. Therefore, mid- to far-infrared may be more favorable to characterize disk properties.

Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal Md AO 1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular Md AO 2 exclusively utilizes monoamines. Empire fruit, and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in Cu AOs.

Genes encoding two of these enzymes, Md AO 1 and Md AO 2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in Md AO 1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in Md AO 2. Transient expression of green fluorescent fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for Md AO 1 and an extracellular localization for Md AO 2.

Md AO 1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas Md AO 2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that Md AO 1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions.

Md AO 2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavor and flower fragrance. For permissions, please email: journals. UV spectra of the magnetic accretor AO Psc show absorption features for half the binary orbit. The absorption is unlike the wind-formed features often seen in similar stars.

Instead, we attribute it to a fraction of the stream that overflows the impact with the accretion disk. Rapid velocity variations can be explained by changes in the trajectory of the stream depending on the orientation of the white dwarf's magnetic field. Hence, we are directly observing the interaction of an accretion stream with a rotating field.

We compare this behavior to that seen in other intermediate polars and in SW Sex stars. Many crosscutting concerns in business processes need to be addressed already at the business process modeling level such as compliance, auditing, billing, and separation of duties. We also present a graphical editor supporting that extension. Mazuray, L. The capability of multi channel detection with AOS is suitable for observing multi-chemical species in a wide frequency region. Low noise of the AOS enables us to obtain the spectra with a very high sensitivity.

Several technical concerns relating to important instrumental characteristics of AOS are discussed and expected performance of the design are overviewed. As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the upper extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included children and adolescents years old diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January and December at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne Switzerland.

Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed and fractures were classified from standard radiographs. In adolescents, single humerus fractures were more often epiphyseal and diaphyseal fractures, and among adolescents radius fractures were more often epiphyseal fractures than in other age groups. Only 0. Interpretation - The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF. Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and.

As part of its final validation, we present the most relevant fracture patterns in the lower extremities of a representative population of children classified according to the PCCF. Patients and methods - We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January and December at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland.

Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed. Overall, 74 of the 83 SH patterns occurred in the distal epiphysis. Of all the metaphyseal fractures, 74 of 79 were classified as incomplete or complete. Interpretation - The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Re-introduction of a specific code for toddler's fractures in the PCCF should be considered.

We evaluated simple and multifragmentary fractures in a large consecutive cohort of children diagnosed with long bone fractures in Switzerland. Patients and methods Children and adolescents treated for fractures between and at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Severity classes were described according to fracture location, patient age and sex, BMI, and cause of trauma.

Interpretation Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. The femur was mostly affected in single fractures and the lower leg was mostly affected in paired-bone fractures. The clinical relevance of multifragmentation regarding growth and long-term functional recovery remains to be determined.

Patients and methods - Children and adolescents treated for fractures between and at 2 tertiary pediatric surgery hospitals were retrospectively included. Interpretation - Overall, multifragmentation in long bone fractures in children was rare and was mostly observed in adolescents. Patients and methods We included patients up to the age of 17 who were diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January and December at either of 2 tertiary care university hospitals in Switzerland.

Interpretation The PCCF allows classification of lower extremity fracture patterns in the clinical setting. Patients and methods We included children and adolescents 0—17 years old diagnosed with 1 or more long bone fractures between January and December at the university hospitals in Bern and Lausanne Switzerland. Interpretation The pattern of pediatric fractures in the upper extremity can be comprehensively described according to the PCCF.

Prospective clinical studies are needed to determine its clinical relevance for treatment decisions and prognostication. Two identical cases, both including 5 TLDs inside various aluminum shields, are exposed to the space environment in order to obtain the absorbed dose profile induced.

Radiation fluence received during the total mission length was computed, taking into account the trapped particles solar maximum and solar minimum periods and the cosmic rays; due to the magnetospheric shielding, the solar proton fluences are negligible on the LDEF orbit. The total dose induced by these radiations inside a semi-infinite plane shield of Al are computed with radiation transport codes.

TLD reading are performed after flight; due to the mission duration increase, a post-flight calibration was necessary in order to cover the range of the flight induced dose. In practice, these LDEF results, with less than a factor 1. Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. The PsCRNtransgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato Pst DC and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRNtransgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner.