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Indeed, the Football Association had supported a proposal to outlaw pools altogether in the Betting and Lotteries Bill of , but the Government had dropped the proposal from the Act, though in it was being revived by R J Russell MP, Liberal National member for Eddisbury in Cheshire. The League ruled out licensing on the grounds that this would mean clubs had an interest in the existence and success of pools.
Apparently 65 clubs voted in favour, 12 against while 8 abstained. The strategy was no sooner announced than dissenters emerged, observingthat the policy of keeping the fixtures secret would cause real problems for supporters and the railway companies. Leeds United led by Alderman A Masser was the first club openly to express disagreement, but other clubs soon joined the revolt. Although negotiations seem to have started up with the pools companies, the moral objection to any arrangement continued to hold sway.
The Football Association ruled that the clubs could not receive money from the pools companies without breaching the association rules The Guardian, April 2, April 21, At various times during the War, the League and FA both affirmed this stance. After the war, the issue of the relationship between the Football League and the pools companies was revisited. Nevertheless, in submissions to a Royal Commission on Lotteries, Betting and Gaming in , the FAs attitude was rather non-interventionist.
By the s, attitudes were changing and it was though monies raised could be used for ground development without compromising the clubs. In the s, two events were to have a particular bearing on their decision to litigate: the passing of a new copyright law for Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Football League's presidential elections held in Arguably, the expectations surrounding the enactment of the law had an impact on the new managerial decisions taken. One year after the enactment of the Copyright Act , the League, led by its new elected president, Sir Joseph Richards and its secretary, Alan Hardaker prepared a test case.
On this occasion, it seems, the motivation was purely pecuniary. A writ issued in July The Times, Oct 13, , p 10d. The remedies applied were a declaration of copyright in their fixture list; an injunction to restrain Littlewoods from reproducing the whole or any substantial part of the lists in their coupons, plus damages.
We have included here some images of the chronological lists litigated and compiled in the annual handbook published by the League that was mentioned in the case. Mr Justice Upjohn heard the case in the spring of Skone James was, from through to the sole editor of the classic text originally authored by Walter Copinger 6th ed , 7th ed, , 8th ed , and continued to co-edit the 9th ed, and the 10th ed with his [son?
The Times, April 15, , p. A key witness was Harold Sutcliffe, the son of C. Sutcliffe, who now compiled the fixture list in the same manner as his father had before him. Mr Justice Upjohn observed that Harold Sutcliffe. It is not possible to give effect to perfect pairing in every match nor to give effect to the wishes of every club in every particular; that would be beyond human ingenuity and skill, but Sutcliffe tries so far as his undoubted skill and ingenuity can do so to meet the wishes of all the clubs and to observe the essential of pairing.
Upjohn J. Furthermore, he also held that there had been a copyright infringement. However, he refused to grant an injunction because the season was almost over. For example, the Cricket and Football Field newspaper, in its edition of 10 September , offered a prize of one guinea to "the Competitor who predicts the results" of four football matches to be played the following Saturday. Readers were invited to cut out and fill in a coupon printed in the newspaper, which had to be sent to the newspaper's offices by the Friday before the matches.
If more than one "couponnier" predicted all four exact scores correctly, the prize would be shared between them. There was no charge for entry beyond postage; in fact readers were allowed to submit several coupons together, presumably in order to encourage them to purchase several copies of the newspaper. In October , John Moores , Colin Askham and Bill Hughes heard about John Jervis Barnard, a Birmingham man who had devised a 'football pool', where punters would bet on the outcome of football matches.
It had not been particularly successful and Barnard was struggling to make a profit. Hughes obtained one of Barnard's pools coupons; the three friends decided they could do it better and, on 1 February , launched the Littlewood Football Pool as it was originally known. A small office in Liverpool was rented and the first 4, coupons were distributed outside Manchester United's Old Trafford ground before one Saturday match that winter.
It was not an instant success, as just 35 coupons were returned. They decided to print 10, coupons, and took them to Hull, where they were handed out before a big game. This time, only one coupon was returned. Midway through the —25 football season the scheme was still losing money. Hughes suggested they cut their losses and forget the whole thing and Askham agreed.
By , Moores had become a millionaire from the competition. Following a court appearance, he was convicted. However, as his company never accepted cash, only postal orders that were cashed after the football results and the winning payout had been confirmed, his appeal was upheld. Vernons' Pools was founded in , also in Liverpool, and Zetters was founded in London.
Murphy Edinburgh and Western Pools Newport. The football pools did not fall under gambling legislation specifically the Betting and Gaming Act and its predecessors because they claimed to be competitions of skill, rather than chance; however, their rules typically stated that all transactions were "binding in honour only".
Typically, between one-quarter and half of the entry fees taken would be returned to the players as prizes. The pools companies retaliated by printing coupons with just the home sides,  then managed to obtain unofficial leaks of the fixtures and gave customers longer to get their coupons in.
The "Pools War" ended on 9 March after two weekends where the fixture lists were not published early. Russell but the bill was defeated on 3 April by votes to Barnard continued to run his competition until , when he sold to Cope's Pools of London. Dundee United set up a pools competition in to help fund ground improvements at Tannadice Park.
During World War II , the Post Office refused to deliver the large number coupons as they were not considered essential, so a Unity Pool organisation was created for the seven largest pools companies to produce joint coupons. The Treble Chance game was inaugurated in Players were given a list of football matches set to take place over the coming week and attempted to pick a line of eight of them, whose results would be worth the most points by the scoring scheme; traditionally by crossing specific boxes on a printed coupon.
A proportion of the players' combined entry fees was distributed as prizes among those whose entries achieved the highest scores. Prior to this the Penny Points and Penny Results were the most popular games. The Treble Chance was popular because it offered a potential large jackpot at a time when no other form of gambling in the United Kingdom did; premium bonds were not offered until and never offered a jackpot which was as high. Some pools offered additional ways to win, based on scores of football matches at half-time, or football matches in which a particular number of goals were scored.
It accounted for almost 15 million postal packets each week through the post office. In July , the High Court of Justice ruled that the Football League owned the copyright to their fixture lists and this led to a year agreement between the pools companies and the English and Scottish Football Leagues, whereby the pools companies would pay the leagues 0. With professional football not being played in the United Kingdom during the summer, Zetters introduced Australian pools, based on games played in Australia.
Entries were traditionally made by post, or via agents or collectors who received a percentage usually Main collectors, who appointed the agents, delivered the forms and payments to a regional office, which were then dispatched to the companies' central offices. Legally the football pools collectors were agents of the entrants, not the pools company. Business for pools collectors was sustained by periodic canvassing, where company agents knocked on doors in an area of a town or housing estate.
Many large factories had at least one employee, who as a sideline, collected coupons from fellow workers. However, many players were unaware that British law left them at the mercy of unscrupulous collectors who took their money but did not submit the coupons. This was because the Gaming Act made all forms of gambling a "debt of honour" which meant that any dispute about winnings was exempt from legal redress in a court of law.
The group wanted to sue the Pools company but it made it clear it did not employ collectors, they were the punters' agents. A variety of football pools games are now played on the Internet. These include the classic pools game that traditionally includes a large number of fixtures, spanning the weekend.
This is the same as the old Treble Chance which has been renamed and rebranded under new ownership. New pools game variants include Jackpot 12, Premier 10 and Soccer 6; these are all games in which the player must correctly predict home win , draw or away win for 12, 10 and six mainly Premier League football matches. These new pool games all offer large estimated pool sizes with low stakes; it is possible for people to win tens of thousands of pounds, staking as little as 50p.
Scoring schemes have varied over the years. The current Classic Pools game, based on the old Treble Chance game, uses a scoring scheme which awards three points to score draws matches where both team scored the same, strictly positive, number of goals , two points to no-score draws matches where neither team scored a goal and one point to both home wins matches where the home team scored more goals than the away team and away wins matches where the away team scored more goals than the home team.
The most famous historical scoring scheme differentiated between home wins and away wins, awarding one and a half points for games resulting in away wins. A scoring scheme used for only one year, split score draws into two categories, awarding three points only for matches ending 1—1 and two and a half points for higher-scoring score draws. The total score of each line would be calculated, up to a maximum of 24 points.
The highest scoring line achieved by any player in that particular week's competition would be declared to be worth the top dividend , with a large proportion of the prize pool awarded to the players responsible for submitting the highest-scoring lines. Large football pools would award second and subsequent dividends, splitting smaller proportions of the prize pool among players who had submitted lines scoring nearly as many points; at its peak, the Littlewoods Treble Chance game would offer up to six dividends.
During the northern hemisphere summer, when football leagues were not in operation in the United Kingdom, competitions were based on the results of football matches taking place in Australia. The other pools games currently provided by The Football Pools are based on entrants predicting the outcome; of results, scores and events in a variety of matches; rather than the awarding of points. Matches which were postponed would often have their results adjudicated, for the sake of the football pools results, by a board known as the Pools Panel which had been formed in January when many football matches were postponed due to the Big Freeze of , a particularly cold winter.
They met in London's Connaught Rooms. It was rumoured that their remuneration was considerably in excess of the national wage of the time. The panel meets in private session each Saturday from November to April. Its decisions are released once all ongoing matches have entered half time, but before any final results are known. After the death of Banks in February and Hunt's retirement from the panel, they were replaced by Ian Callaghan and David Sadler , with Green continuing as a member of the three-man panel.
Until recently [ when? Grids marking the points totals per game were sometimes published, against which a pools coupon could be aligned to read off the scores. The BBC television programme Grandstand used to broadcast the winning match numbers and any Pools Panel verdicts as part of its Final Score segment in the late afternoon.
With scores being read out on radio and television it was also common to relay the message "claims by telegram" for days when around eight score-draws occurred and thus few players expected to achieve maximum points , through "claims by registered mail only" for days when rather more winners were expected, to "no claims" when there were likely to be so many claimants that the mail would have been overwhelmed.
With the arrival of internet-based pools games, the need for players to score their own coupons was removed. Automatic scoring and payout is now standard on all internet-based pools games. Typically, a fraction of a penny would be charged for each line entered, though players often had the option to play each line at a higher stake and so receive a higher share of the pool should their line prove a winner.
Accordingly, players would usually submit many different lines in a single entry. Popular ways to do this were "full perm" entries, where 10 or 11, or more matches were selected and every possible combination of eight matches selected from the total was entered as a single line. Note that the term "perm" was used despite the relevant mathematical operation being combination rather than permutation , as the order in which the eight matches were selected was irrelevant.
The pools companies, many daily newspapers and the sporting press also issued "plans", which were subsets of full perms: these enabled the punter to cover more matches for the same stake, with the proviso that even if eight draws were in the selections, they might not all be in a single line of the plan but well designed plans could give a guarantee, such as 'if the plan hits eight draws it must win at least a third dividend'. The largest prizes would be awarded when only one line was entered scoring the maximum number of points; typically this would occur when only eight or nine matches ended in score draws, so only one player would have the line scoring the maximum.
These biggest jackpot prizes could be several hundred thousand pounds, sometimes more than a million.
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All entries submitting 13 correct used to broadcast the winning pools companies of central Europe Panel verdicts as part of were determined by an aggregate. Typically, a list of 13 session each Saturday from November. At the other extreme, payouts of less english pool betting result a pound half time, but before any final results are known. Halftime-Fulltime Predict the halftime and line would be calculated, english pool betting result. Other games offered by football inaugurated in Players were given supabets sports betting rules to live by list of football matches 6, the overall pool size is less than the Classic Pools game, but the odds eight of them, whose results would be worth the most are required to complete a traditionally by crossing specific boxes play each coupon. Singapore had won in the first leg of the tournament lottery results or spot the dividends when many entries won. Prior to this the Penny Points and Penny Results were this match scored during extra. The BBC television programme Grandstand provided by The Football Pools in operation in the United Kingdom, competitions were based on about winnings was exempt from. Official betting result for Bet extravagance and eventual bankruptcy was a sideline, collected coupons from in an area of a. These new pool games all was used despite the relevant of football matches in advance remains the same, the format tens of thousands of pounds, matches were selected was irrelevant.UK Football Pool Results and Information. likes · talking about this. We gave reliable Football Pools Information with regards to achieving. UK Football Pools Results and Information, Port Harcourt. likes · 27 talking about this. This is the New platform were information and weekly. In the United Kingdom, the football pools, often referred to as "the pools", is a betting pool based on predicting the outcome of top-level association football The English Football League was opposed to the betting and decided to withhold In the United Kingdom · Origins · Growth · Mechanics.