Dutch the framework of a house. I, me. H habat, way, manner. Habshi, Ar. Abyssinian, Ethiopian, Negro; orang H. Allah, God's poor; h. Komnpgni, Indian convicts, h. Xaxomaxa, Skr. Siti Hawa, Eve. Hindi, Indian. Hindu, Hindoo, Hindustan, India. Kokian, Ch. Holanda, Dutch; also BWlanda.
Hongkoug, Hongkong; kereta h. Hua, Ar. Hudai, orang H. I ia, he, she, it; ia-itu, that is to say; namely. Iblis, Ar. Igama, Skr. Islam, Muhammadanism; also agama and. Ilaha, Ar. God; la Ilaha ila'llah, there is no God but Allah. Ilahat, Ar. Indira, Skr. Inggbris, English. Lukas, the gospel according to St. Isa, Ar. Nabi Isa, Jesus Christ in Muhammadan tradition.
Iskandar, Ar. Alexander; I. Islam, Ar. Istambul, Constantinople. J jabal, Ar. Izrael, Ar. Jajat, to mimic; taking off; ridiculing by mimicry. Janjam, water very poetically ex. Janggi, I. Zanzibari; African; Tauh j,, a tree supposed to grow in the centre of the great ocean; buah pauh j. II, P-lrs. II spreading above ground of the roots of a tree such as the mangrove. Jarah, I. II Ar, a mite; an. Jaral, I.
Jarum, a needle; j. JTaudi, Ar. Jawa, Javanese; tanah J. Jawi, I. Malayan; Sumatran and Javan; hurtufJ. Sjeeh, slightly leaking or spilling. J61lpok, onom. Jbpun, Japan. Elmo's light; an ignis fatuius taken by sea-faring Malays to be an evil spirit. Jbrupeh, mgnj9rupeh, to add a band or layer to the top of anything so as to increase its height. Jibrael, Ar. Jima', Ar. Jumaat, Ar. K ka, I. Ikabut, cloudy, misty, indistinct; mist; hilang k.
Ikacha, glass the material ; roda 7c. China, the pea-nut arachis hypogcea ; also k. Jgpun, the soy bean soya hispida ; k. Muhammadan; also kapir. Batek, Javanese painted sarongs; k. Jalor a bamboo gong. I:kalam, I. Kedah kalang ayam, a hen-roost. Ikalas, I. Dutch room; a cabin in a ship. BWlanda, a sheep; k. Bgnggala, a large imported goat; k.
Kantong, Ch. Kapri, Caffre, African, Negro. Balanda, chalk; k. Karun, Ar. Koral the enemy of Moses , believed by Malays to have been a man of enormous wealth whose treasure is new buried in the earth for wizard to find. Dyak head hunting.
Ik]dilai, kachang kedelai, a plant phaseolus mungo. Uclana, I. Ikblara, ikan lkilara, a fish unidentifled. Lklasi, I. Z ates leuciscus. Mblindan, strong sewing thread. X6ling, "Kling," a name applied to all immigrants from the Coromandel coast but sometimes limited to Muhammadan immigrants from that coast the others being called Orang Hindu ; orang K. U3liru, confusion of thought; muddle-headedness; pikir k.
Tklodak, thunder-cf. Jk1lok, a curve; an arc; a semicircle; birkalok-kBlok, cut in semi-circles of a border -cf. Jc6manig, an evil spirit affecting newborn children. Ukmpang, a sort of dug-out used on rivers. Jkmpong, shrunken about the cheeks as a toothless man. Jkcnong, a small copper gong forming part of the gamnlan. Ukpudang, burong kcpuzdang, a kind of thrush mentioned in romances. Ikrabu, I. Ikbretut, uneven of sewing. Jckrika1, a large salver or tray. Ikrikam, an Indian cloth.
Jkbrikil, batu kerikil, flints; pebbles.. Jkerong, kerong-kerong, the orifice through which water escapes from the scuppers; ikan kerong-kerong, a fish sebastes stolizke. Jr6ruping, the scab over a healing wound-cf. Penang assault by a gang.
KXsna, Skr. Khalik Ar. God the creator. Ikikir, a file, a grater; by metaphor miserly. Ikilan, Jav. Ikilas, a thong; a strap for pinioning. Icinchang, kinchang-kinchang, gadding about. Jkobak, peeling, unhusking; kobakckan, to peel. Jkok, a single yoke-cf. Kompini, Eur. Ikuasa, I. Belanda, the rabbit; k. Belanda; anak k. Ikudis, skin-disease causing scurf; mange. Ikui, a brazier's mould. Xkuini, the wild mango mangifera foetida. Jkunchup, closing up or folding up of an umbrella or of any similar object which shrinks on itself but is not rolled round itself like a flag ; knmbang k.
Kuran, Ar. Xuripan, an old kingdom in Java, the home of Sira Panji. Inlbtu, a tick; tindas k. L la, Ar. Allah, the curse of God; laanatan, accursed. China, a pepper piper chaba ; 1. II, halliards. Lanun, Ilanun the name of a pirati. IIa great gate; a main entrance; lawangan, id. Isok-l1sak, to rustle. Umpat, fresh, jovial, genial. Dutch a cord, a twist of cord-like patterns in carving. M ma', mother familiar. Xajuj, Ar. Wpstaka, extreme ill-luck. Maseh, I. Al-maseh, the Messiah, Jesus. Masehi, Ar.
Christian, Protestant. Islan or m. Mglayu, to become a Muhammadan;. Zlmas, death by suffocation or drowning; n. Maulia, Ar. Mllayu, Malayan, Malay; Muhammadan; anak M. Iniltua1, father-ia-law; mother-inlaw. MXsuara, Skr.
Maheswara; Siva. Mikael, Ar. Iebat, a drooping moustache. Misir, Ar. Muharram, Ar. Musa, Ar. S marau, the dry season; m. Muslim, Ar. Moslem, Muhammadan,. N, Ng, Ny naam, Ar. Ibrahim, Abraham; n. Idris; Enoch; n. Isa, Jesus; nabi-nabi, the starfish of seven points-cf. Allah, what God has forbidden.
Arabic in. Nasrani, Ar. Ottu, Ar. Ogah, Hind. Ogok, stinginess. I have it! Dutch a watchman. Melayu, a Malay; kata o. Dutch the Dutch " pole" as a measure of length. Ilngan, the upper arm; pangkalan, a landing place; the point where a traveller leaves the sea for a land journey, or vice-versa. The feeler or antenna of an insect. Dutch , a placard. Pfndawa, Skr. O:elam, id. Prranchis, Port.
Pulau P. Inggeris, British rule;. Indian, Persian, Indonesian. Frank, European, Portuguese. Allah taala didalam Kuran, the word of God revealed in the Koran; also firman. Ilsi, pale through anaemia; p. Snangis p. R raba, groping or feeling about with the hands; mgraba, to grope; to fondle. Lord of God ; Ilahi R. Rabi-U4-awal and Rabi-. Rajab, Ar. Taksi, I. Ssri Rama, the Hindu demi-god Rama. Ramadzan, Ar. II om pang-ramping, tattered and torn.
Tang, tanah rang, a rice-field banked and previously cultivated, but temporarily lying fallow. Ranjuna, Skr. Allah, God's apostle, Muhammad. Kawi the earth; jaya ning-rat, victorious in the land; conqueror of the world. Kuripan, the Prince of Kuripan, Panji. III, a large tree unidentified. Trbdang, baking or frying; marin. Aitngap, onom. IIdizzy with excitement; light-headed or feverish with pleasure.
Mlayu 'roman, romanised Malay. Rum, Ar. II, nruLnjang, to thrust blindly at what we cannot see. In situ spectrophotometric measurement of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater. Liua, Xuewu; Byrne, Robert H. General environmental conditions e. The sample and a known reagent solution are then equilibrated across a gas-permeable membrane.
The acidic reagent protects the sensor cell from biofouling, and the gas-permeable membrane excludes particulates from the optical path. This instrument, the first spectrophotometric system capable of automated in situ DIC measurements, positions DIC to become a key parameter for in situ CO2-system characterizations.
Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity. Today over 15 million square kilometers 5. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces.
Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time.
Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment.
To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon , coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. Physiological conditions and uptake of inorganic carbon by plant roots. The uptake of inorganic 14 C by bean plant roots was measured.
The plants were grown in a nutrient solution culture at pH 6 and a NaH 14 CO 3 tracer was added to the growth medium. Photosynthesis and transpiration were varied by exposing the aerial portions of the plants to different atmospheric CO 2 concentrations , humidities and light levels in a cuvette system.
Leaf concentrations of 14 C were measured at the end of the experiments using liquid scintillation counting. Plant uptake of 14 C via the roots was independent of the photosynthetic rate and, in most cases, could be predicted by knowing the transpiration rate and the nutrient solution concentration. However, when a less efficient root-medium aeration system was used, 14 C uptake was greater than that predicted using transpiration, a phenomenon observed by other researchers.
This contrasted to results of another experiment where the measured uptake of iodine was much slower than that predicted using transpiration. Knowledge of transpiration rates is useful in predicting inorganic carbon uptake via the roots and in estimating 14 C transport from contaminated soils to biota. Also, the independence of the uptake from photosynthesis and ambient CO 2 concentrations suggests that future increases in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may not have a direct effect on root uptake of soil carbon.
Inorganic markers, carbonaceous components and stable carbon isotope from biomass burning aerosols in northeast China. To better characterize the sources of fine particulate matter i. Intensively open biomass burning episodes were identified from late September to early October by satellite fire and aerosol optical depth maps. During the biomass burning episodes, concentrations of PM2.
Non-sea-salt potassium is strongly correlated with PM2. The enrichment in both the non-sea-salt potassium and chlorine is significantly larger than other inorganic species, indicating that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly fresh and less aged. In addition, WSOC to OC ratio is relatively lower compared to that reported in biomass burning aerosols in tropical regions, supporting that biomass burning aerosols in Sanjiang Plain is mostly primary and secondary organic aerosols is not significant.
Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer. It has been suggested that mineral concentrates MCs produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen N cycle. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PAH compounds and inorganic constituents.
PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway.
Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils.
Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Coccolithophores, the single celled phytoplankton that produce an outer covering of calcium carbonate coccoliths, are considered to be the greatest contributors to the global oceanic particulate inorganic carbon PIC pool.
The reflective coccoliths scatter light back out from the ocean surface, enabling PIC concentration to be quantitatively estimated from ocean color satellites. Here we use datasets of AQUA MODIS PIC concentration from using the recently-revised PIC algorithm , as well as statistics on coccolithophore vertical distribution derived from cruises throughout the world ocean, to estimate the average global surface and integrated PIC standing stock and its associated inter-annual variability.
In addition, we divide the global ocean into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, update the PIC biomass statistics and identify those regions that have the greatest inter-annual variability and thus may exert the greatest influence on global PIC standing stock and the alkalinity pump.
Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges. Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material.
CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials.
A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties.
Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.
Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon OC and inorganic C IC losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system.
Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.
Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage. The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available.
In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids SC-hybrids of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano- carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano- carbon.
We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials.
The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon , affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano- carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized- carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles.
This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC. Inorganic speciation of dissolved elements in seawater: the influence of pH on concentration ratios.
Full Text Available Assessments of inorganic elemental speciation in seawater span the past four decades. Experimentation, compilation and critical review of equilibrium data over the past forty years have, in particular, considerably improved our understanding of cation hydrolysis and the complexation of cations by carbonate ions in solution. Through experimental investigations and critical evaluation it is now known that more than forty elements have seawater speciation schemes that are strongly influenced by pH.
In the present work, the speciation of the elements in seawater is summarized in a manner that highlights the significance of pH variations. Equilibrium data expressed in this manner clearly show dominant species transitions, ranges of dominance, and relative concentrations at any pH. Bioengineering aspects of inorganic carbon supply to mass algal cultures. Final report.
The work included in this report is part of an ongoing study currently funded by the Solar Energy Research Institute - Subcontract No. XR on the inorganic carbon requirements of microalgae under mass culture conditions and covers the period June 1, through May 31, It is divided into two parts appended herein.
The first part is a literature review on the inorganic carbon chemical system in relation to algal growth requirements, and the second part deals with the kinetics of inorganic carbon -limited growth of two freshwater chlorophytes including the effect of carbon limitation on cellular chemical composition.
Additional experiment research covered under this contract was reported in the Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conferences, pp. Report No. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation. When air containing 0. Radiocarbon and stable-isotope geochemistry of organic and inorganic carbon in Lake Superior. We present a lake-wide investigation of Lake Superior carbon and organic matter biogeochemistry using radiocarbon, stable isotope, and carbon concentrations.
Dissolved organic carbon DOC abundance was Lake particulate organic carbon POC, 0. POC 14C depletion could not be accounted for by black carbon in the lake but, because of its spatial and temporal distribution, is attributed to sediment resuspension.
The presence of old POC within the epilimnion of the open lake indicates possible benthic-pelagic coupling in the lake's organic carbon cycle; the ultimate fate of this old POC bears further investigation. Inorganic membranes for carbon capture and power generation.
Inorganic membranes are under consideration for cost-effective reductions of carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, both in the capture of pollutants post-firing and in the direct electrochemical conversion of coal-derived fuels for improved plant efficiency. The suitability of inorganic membrane materials for these purposes stems as much from thermal and chemical stability in coal plant operating conditions as from high performance in gas separations and power generation.
Hydrophilic, micro-porous zeolite membrane structures are attractive for separating CO2 from N2 in gaseous waste streams due to the attraction of CO2 to the membrane surface and micropore walls that gives the advantage to CO2 transport.
However, the role of the templating agent in micro-porous transport has not been well investigated. Thus, the steric nature of the blocking of N2 from the micropores by the templating agent was confirmed. CO2 and H2O sorption enthalpies were similarly unaffected by the templating agent, and the micropore occupations were only reduced as much as the void volume taken up by the templating agent.
Thus, the steric blocking effect did not occur for molecules more strongly attracted to the micropore walls. Additionally, in time-transient measurements the CO 2 and H2O mobilities were significantly enhanced by the presence. Sources and fluxes of inorganic carbon in a deep, oligotrophic lake Loch Ness, Scotland.
The main river inflows to Loch Ness and several depths in the water column within the loch were sampled over an annual cycle. The carbon isotope composition of total dissolved inorganic carbon DIC from the samples was determined as well as that of phytoplankton from the loch. Riverine loading accounted for most of the DIC in Loch Ness, and the great depth of the loch relative to its surface area allows only limited exchange with the atmosphere.
However, the photosynthetic depletion of DIC during summer does not offset the riverine loading sufficiently to prevent the loch waters being supersaturated with CO2 throughout the year. The remainder is attributable to inorganic carbon input to the lake via river inflow and derived from prior mineralization of soil organic matter within the drainage area.
Distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf Eastern Mediterranean. Full Text Available Data on the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon measured as TCO2 and related parameters in the Thermaikos Gulf were obtained during May High TCO2 concentrations were recorded close to the bottom, especially in the northern part of the gulf, as a result of organic matter remineralisation.
The positive relatively good correlation between TCO2 and both apparent oxygen utilisation AOU and phosphate at the last sampling depth confi rmed the regenerative origin of a large proportion of TCO2. A rough first estimate of the magnitude of the air-sea CO2 exchange and the potential role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the transfer of atmospheric CO2 was also obtained.
The results showed that during May , the Thermaikos Gulf acted as a weak sink for atmospheric CO2 at a rate of Extensive study of the dissolved inorganic carbon and related parameters, and continuous shipboard measurements of fCO2 a and fCO2 w during all seasons are necessary to safely quantify the role of the Thermaikos Gulf in the context of the coastal margins CO2 dynamics. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams.
Dissolved inorganic carbon DIC constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage AMD in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream.
The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13 C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD 2. The 13 C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture 8. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13 C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: 1 variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and 2 to HCO 3 - input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction.
This loss of DIC. Symbiotic cnidarians absorb inorganic carbon from seawater to supply intracellular dinoflagellates with CO 2 for their photosynthesis. To determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon transport by animal cells, we used plasma membrane vesicles prepared from ectodermal cells isolated from tentacles of the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. H 14 CO - 3 and 36 Cl - uptakes were stimulated by a positive inside-membrane diffusion potential, suggesting the presence of HCO - 3 and Cl - conductances.
Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary. Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon , acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon DIC , total alkalinity TA , and pH were measured along the estuary from June to April There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3- concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin.
This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns.
Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be CO2 is one of the major causes for global climate change. To analyze aqueous samples, more errors can be caused than gas analysis.
The carbon isotope fractionation occurs during dissolving standard reagents and extracting DIC as CO2 gas form. This effect is mixed with CO2 concentration dependence effect, therefore the curve patterns are different with that for reference gas.
Determination of the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock using stable carbon isotopes. Chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater from piezometers located around a reclaimed landfill in Otwock Poland were performed in order to trace the origin of dissolved inorganic carbon DIC in the groundwater. Due to differences in the isotopic composition of carbon from different sources, an analysis of stable carbon isotopes in the groundwater, together with the Keeling plot approach and a two-component mixing model allow us to evaluate the relative contributions of carbon from these sources in the groundwater.
P CO2 values in the aquifer in Otwock were always one to two orders of magnitude above the atmospheric P CO2, and thus CO2 escaped directly into the vadose zone. Effects of land use on soil inorganic carbon stocks in the Russian Chernozem. Little is known about changes in soil inorganic carbon SIC stocks with depth and with land use in grassland ecosystems.
This study was conducted to determine SIC stocks under different management regimes in the Mollisol, one of the typical soils in grasslands. Four sites were sampled: a native grassland field not cultivated for at least yr , an adjacent yr continuous fallow field, a yearly cut hay field in the V. All sampled soils were classified as fine-silty, mixed, frigid Pachic Hapludolls. Significant differences occurred in SIC stocks between cultivated and grassland soil.
The inorganic carbon stocks in the top 2 m were Mg ha -1 for the native grassland, 91 Mg ha -1 for the yearly cut hay field, Mg ha -1 for the continuously cropped field, and Mg ha -1 for the yr continuous fallow. The SIC was in the form of calcium carbonate and was mostly stored below the 1-m depth. The largest difference between inorganic carbon stocks was observed between the continuously cropped field and native grassland. The increase in inorganic carbon in the continuously cropped field and continuous fallow was attributed to initial cultivation and fertilization.
Soil inorganic carbon in Mollisols is not accounted for in the current global carbon estimates. We conclude that the dominant source of POC near the river mouth and in the inner Amazon plume during November was aged, resuspended material of significant terrestrial character derived from shelf sediments, while the outer plume contained mainly marine-derived POC.
It is designed as a long-term field experiment. Meanwhile, it is one of important field experiment for biochar effects on crop production, soil processes, and environmental impact. Bioinformatic analysis of the distribution of inorganic carbon transporters and prospective targets for bioengineering to increase Ci uptake by cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria have evolved a carbon-concentrating mechanism CCM which has enabled them to inhabit diverse environments encompassing a range of inorganic carbon Ci: [Formula: see text] and CO2 concentrations.
Here we survey the distribution of genes encoding known Ci uptake systems in cyanobacterial genomes and, using a pfam- and gene context-based approach, identify in the marine alpha cyanobacteria a heretofore unrecognized number of putative counterparts to the well-known Ci transporters of beta cyanobacteria. In addition, our analysis shows that there is a huge repertoire of transport systems in cyanobacteria of unknown function, many with homology to characterized Ci transporters.
These can be viewed as prospective targets for conversion into ancillary Ci transporters through bioengineering. Increasing intracellular Ci concentration coupled with efforts to increase carbon fixation will be beneficial for the downstream conversion of fixed carbon into value-added products including biofuels.
In addition to CCM transporter homologs, we also survey the occurrence of rhodopsin homologs in cyanobacteria, including bacteriorhodopsin, a class of retinal-binding, light-activated proton pumps. Because they are light driven and because of the apparent ease of altering their ion selectivity, we use this as an example of re-purposing an endogenous transporter for the augmentation of Ci uptake by cyanobacteria and potentially chloroplasts.
Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon in surface sediments of the Yellow River Estuary. Estuarine sediment is an important carbon reservoir thus may play an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, little is known on the dynamics of organic carbon OC and inorganic carbon IC in the surface sediment of the Yellow River Estuary, a large estuary in northern China. In this study, we applied element analyses and isotopic approach to study spatial distribution and sources of OC and IC in the Yellow River Estuary.
We found that TIC concentration 6. The lower TOC values in the south section were due to relatively higher kinetic energy level whereas the higher values in the bay was attributable to terrigenous matters accumulation and lower kinetic energy level. Our study points out that the dynamics of sedimentary carbon in the Yellow River Estuary is influenced by multiple and complex processes, and highlights the importance of carbonate in carbon sequstration.
Modelling the 13C and 12C isotopes of inorganic and organic carbon in the Baltic Sea. In this study, 12C and 13C contents of all carbon containing state variables dissolved inorganic and organic carbon , detrital carbon , and the carbon content of autotrophs and heterotrophs have for the first time been explicitly included in a coupled physical-biogeochemical Baltic Sea model. Different processes in the carbon cycling have distinct fractionation values, resulting in specific isotopic fingerprints.
Thus, in addition to simulating concentrations of different tracers, our new model formulation improves the possibility to constrain the rates of processes such as CO2 assimilation, mineralization, and air-sea exchange. We demonstrate that phytoplankton production and respiration, and the related air-sea CO2 fluxes, are to a large degree controlling the isotopic composition of organic and inorganic carbon in the system. The isotopic composition is further, but to a lesser extent, influenced by river loads and deep water inflows as well as transformation of terrestrial organic carbon within the system.
Changes in the isotopic composition over the 20th century have been dominated by two processes - the preferential release of 12C to the atmosphere in association with fossil fuel burning, and the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea related to increased nutrient loads under the second half of the century. Photosynthetic carbon uptake of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii Ehrenb.
Aschers was studied by several methods. Photosynthesis in buffered seawater in media in the range of pH 6 to pH 9 showed an exponentially increasing rate with decreasing pH, thus indicating that free CO 2 was a photosynthetic substrate. However, these experiments were unable to determine whether photosynthesis at alkaline pH also contained some component due to HCO 3 - uptake. This aspect was further investigated by studying photosynthetic rates in a number of media of varying pH 7.
In these media, photosynthetic rate was correlated with free CO 2 concentration and was independent of the HCO 3 - concentration in the medium. Short time-course experiments were conducted during equilibration of free CO 2 and HCO 3 - after injection of 14 C labeled solution at acid or alkaline pH. High initial photosynthetic rates were observed when acidic solutions largely free CO 2 were used but not with alkaline solutions. The concentration of free CO 2 was found to be a limiting factor for photosynthesis in this plant.
Urea route to coat inorganic nanowires, carbon fibers and nanotubes by boron nitride. A simple route involving urea as the nitrogen source has been employed to carry out boron nitride coating on carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanowires. The process involves heating the carbon fibers and nanotubes or inorganic nanowires in a mixture of H 3 BO 3 and urea, followed by a heat treatment at deg. C in a N 2 atmosphere. We have been able to characterize the BN coating by transmission electron microscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
The urea decomposition route affords a simple method to coat boron nitride on one-dimensional nanostructures. Inorganic carbon turnover caused by digestion of carbonate sands and metabolic activity of holothurians. Recent measurements have shown that holothurians sea cucumbers may play an important role in the cycling of CaCO3 in tropical coral reef systems through ingestion and processing of carbonate sediment.
In this report, we present estimates of inorganic carbon turnover rates determined from laboratory incubations of Holothuria atra, Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus herrmanni. The pH values of the gut lumen ranged from 7. Empty gut volume estimates for H. The annual CaCO3 dissolution rates per H. During incubations the CaCO3 dissolution of the fecal casts was 0. The CaCO3 saturation state in the incubation seawater decreased markedly due to a greater increase in dissolved inorganic carbon DIC relative to total alkalinity AT as a result of respiration by the animals.
Our results support the hypothesis that deposit feeders such as sea cucumbers play an important ecological role in the coral reef CaCO3 cycle. Dynamics of organic and inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove and seagrass systems Gazi Bay, Kenya. We report on the water column biogeochemistry in adjacent mangrove and seagrass systems in Gazi Bay Kenya , with a focus on assessing the sources and cycling of organic and inorganic carbon.
Mangrove and seagrass-derived material was found to be the dominant organic carbon sources in the water. Regardless of the application, the basic biotechnology of large-scale outdoor cultures involves many common features, particularly in the requirement for adequate nutrients such as carbon , nitrogen, and phosphorus to ensure that light is the sole limiting yield determinant. Whereas the required quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus are fairly simple, to estimate, those for inorganic carbon are far more complex.
Stress corrosion inhibitors for type stainless steels with low carbon content in hot and concentrated solutions of MgCl2. Study of some inorganic iodides. Stress corrosion inhibitors for type Z2CN austenitic stainless steels with low carbon content in a solution of Cl 2 Mg at deg C were investigated. It was established that iodides are the most adequate corrosion inhibitors because they react simultaneously upon the three main components of the alloy Fe, Ni, Cr.
A difference of behavior between I 2 Mg and the other iodides was observed in electrochemistry and in simple stress corrosion experiments and the influence of the metallic cation associated to I - was studied. The formation of the superficial film and the phenomena liable to occur at the interface film-corrosive solution were examined: film growth in MgCl 2 ; influence of certain substances added to the solution.
A mechanism of inhibition by I - is suggested. Synthesis of PbI 2 single-layered inorganic nanotubes encapsulated within carbon nanotubes. The template assisted growth of single-layered inorganic nanotubes is reported. Single-crystalline lead iodide single-layered nanotubes have been prepared using the inner cavities of carbon nanotubes as hosting templates. The diameter of the resulting inorganic nanotubes is merely dependent on the diameter of the host.
This facile method is highly versatile opening up new horizons in the preparation of single-layered nanostructures. KGaA, Weinheim. Recent measurements have shown that holothurians sea cucumbers play an important role in the cycling of CaCO3 in tropical coral reef systems through ingestion and processing of carbonate sediment. In this study inorganic additional aspects of carbon turnover were determined in laboratory incubations of Holothuria atra, H.
The pH values of the gut lumen ranged from 6. The annual dissolution rates of H. During the incubations the CaCO3 dissolution was 0. The CaCO3 saturation state for both aragonite and calcite minerals during laboratory incubations decreased markedly due to a greater increase in dissolved inorganic carbon DIC relative to total alkalinity AT as a result of respiration by the animals.
Barium carbonate sediment sampling for inorganic dissolved carbon using isotope mass ratio spectrometer. This paperwork explain the method of water sampling to obtain the precipitate of BaCO 3 solutions that will be used to analyze 13 C from field work in Kelana Jaya, Selangor, Langkawi, Kedah and Taiping, Perak.
The sampling involves collecting of water samples for groundwater from boreholes and surface water from canal, river, pond and ex-mining pond from several locations at the study sites. This study also elaborates the instruments and chemicals used. A correct sampling method according to standard is very important to ensure an accurate and precise result. With this, the data from the laboratory analysis result can be fully utilized to make the interpretation of the pollutants movement.
Comparing carbon to carbon : Organic and inorganic carbon balances across nitrogen fertilization gradients in rainfed vs. The top meter of the earth's soil contains about twice the amount of carbon than the atmosphere. Agricultural management practices influence whether a cropland soil is a net carbon source or sink. These practices affect both organic and inorganic carbon cycling although the vast majority of studies examine the former.
We will present results from several rarely-compared carbon fluxes: carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration from lime calcium carbonate weathering, dissolved gases emitted from groundwater-fed irrigation, dissolved organic carbon DOC leaching to groundwater, and soil organic matter storage.
These were compared in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation under no-till management across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient where half of the replicated blocks are irrigated with groundwater. DOC and liming fluxes are also estimated from a complementary study in neighboring plots comparing a gradient of management practices from conventional to biologically-based annuals and perennials.
These studies were conducted at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in Michigan where previous work estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from liming accounted for about one quarter of the total global warming impact GWI from no-till systems—our work refines that figure. We will present a first time look at the GWI of gases dissolved in groundwater that are emitted when the water equilibrates with the atmosphere.
We will explore whether nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation increase soil organic carbon sequestration by producing greater crop biomass and residues or if they enhance microbial activity, increasing decomposition of organic matter. These results are critical for more accurately estimating how intensive agricultural practices affect the carbon balance of cropping systems.
Human-induced changes in carbon fluxes across the land-ocean interface can influence the global carbon cycle, yet the impacts of rapid urbanization and establishment of wastewater treatment plants WWTPs on coastal ocean carbon cycles are poorly known. Here, we report surface water dissolved inorganic carbon DIC and sedimentary organic carbon concentrations and their isotopic compositions in the rapidly urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in northeast China as well as carbonate parameters in effluents of three large WWTPs around the bay.
Our study shows that high-DIC and low-pH wastewater effluent represents an important source of DIC and acidification in coastal waters. In contrast to the traditional view of anthropogenic organic carbon export and degradation, we suggest that with the increase of wastewater discharge and treatment rates, wastewater DIC input may play an increasingly more important role in the coastal ocean carbon cycle.
Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae. The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae.
The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae Full Text Available Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. Form of inorganic carbon utilized for photosynthesis in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells. The rate of photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation in Chlorella vulgaris 11h cells in the presence of 0. However, when air containing ppm 14 CO 2 was bubbled through the algal suspension, the rate of 14 CO 2 fixation immediately after the start of the bubbling was suppressed by CA.
We therefore concluded that, irrespective of the CO 2 concentration given to the algal cells during growth, the active species of inorganic carbon absorbed by Chlorella cells is free CO 2 and they cannot utilize bicarbonate. The effects observed in the high-CO 2 cells were much more pronounced than those in the low-CO 2 cells.
This difference was accounted for by the difference in the affinity for CO 2 in photosynthesis between the high- and low-CO 2 cells. Determination of 14C age of inorganic and organic carbon in ancient Siberian permafrost. Onstott, T. Permafrost represents a large reservoir of ancient carbon that could have an important impact on the global carbon budget during climate warming. Due to the low turnover rate of carbon by microorganisms at subzero temperatures, the persistence of ancient carbon in younger permafrost deposits could also pose challenges for radiocarbon dating of permafrost sediment.
We utilized Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to determine the 14C age of inorganic carbon , labile and recalcitrant organic carbon in Siberian permafrost sediment sampled at various depths from 2. The fraction of inorganic carbon CO2 was collected after acidification using phosphoric acid. The percentages of inorganic carbon increased from the youngest 2. The 14C age determined in the inorganic fraction in the top sample 2. Surprisingly, the fraction of "younger" carbon liberated at oC was older than the more recalcitrant and presumably older organic carbon liberated at oC in all cases.
Moreover, the 14C age of the younger and older organic carbon fractions did not increase with depth as observed in the carbonate fraction. In particular, the 14C age of the organic carbon in the top sample 38,, yr BP was much older than the deeper samples at depth of 3. It should be noticed that the metabolism of ancient carbon in frozen permafrost may vary at different depths due to the different proportion of necromass and metabolically active microbes.
Therefore, additional knowledge about the carbon dynamics of permafrost and more investigation would be required to. A biological indicator of inorganic arsenic exposure using the sum of urinary inorganic arsenic and monomethylarsonic acid concentrations. Objectives: The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic iAs , monomethylarsonic acid MMA , and dimethylarsinic acid DMA concentrations is used for the biological monitoring of occupational iAs exposure. Although DMA is a major metabolite of iAs, it is an inadequate index because high DMA levels are present in urine after seafood consumption.
Methods: We used data from two arsenic speciation analyses of urine samples from Bangladeshi with oral iAs exposure and Japanese workers without occupational iAs exposure using high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In the urine of the Japanese workers, arsenic was mostly excreted as AsBe. The sum of the calculated and background values can be used as a biological indicator of iAs exposure.
Conclusion: We propose Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi 2. The Lomagundi 2. The amount of oxygen released to the exosphere during the Lomagundi excursion is constrained by the average global fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon , which is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger in the Paleoproterozoic ocean, at a time of lower solar luminosity and lower ocean redox state, decoupling between these two variables might be expected.
We determined carbon isotope values of carbonate and organic matter in carbonates and shales of the Silverton Formation, South Africa and in the correlative Sengoma Argillite Formation, near the border in Botswana. These units were deposited between 2. The prodelta to offshore marine shales are overlain by a subtidal carbonate sequence. Carbonates exhibit elevated 13C values ranging from 8. VPDB consistent with deposition during the Lomagundi positive excursion.
The total organic carbon TOC contents range from 0. Thus, the isotopic fractionation between organic and carbonate carbon was on average The underlying Sengoma shales have highly variable TOC contents 0. Photochemical mineralization of terrigenous DOC to dissolved inorganic carbon in ocean. When terrigenous dissolved organic carbon tDOC rich in chromophoric dissolved organic matter tCDOM enters the ocean, solar radiation mineralizes it partially into dissolved inorganic carbon DIC.
We collected water samples from 10 major rivers, mixed them with artificial seawater, and irradiated them with simulated solar radiation to measure DIC photoprod Riverine dissolved carbon concentration and yield in subtropical catchments, Taiwan. Dissolved carbon is not highly correlated to carbon cycle, but also a critical water quality indicator and affected by interaction of terrestrial and aquatic environment at catchment scale.
However, the rates and extent of the dissolved carbon export are still poorly understood and scarcely quantified especially for typhoon events. In this study, regular and events' data of riverine dissolved organic carbon DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon DIC were monitored to estimate the export. Meanwhile, the hydrological model and mixing model were used for determination of DOC and DIC flow pathways at 3 sites of Tsengwen reservoir in southern Taiwan in Results showed that the mean DOC concentration was 1.
The average DOC yield was 3. On the other hand, DIC concentration ranged from 15 to Mean annual DIC yield was 51 ton-C km-2 yr The DOC concentration increased to folds rapidly before the flood peak. However, DIC concentration was diluted to one third with discharge simultaneously and returned slowly to base concentration in more than a week. According to the hydrological model, events contributed Furthermore, It implied that increases of surface runoff transported DOC form near soil surface, but diluted DIC concentration likely implied the contribution of groundwater.
Our study characterized the specialty of dissolved carbon. During serpentinization of ultramafic rocks, ferrous iron in silicates is oxidized to ferric minerals and H2O is reduced to H2. This process is accompanied by the reduction of inorganic carbon , as observed in experiments and natural systems.
To test the extent to which stable and metastable equilibria are reached among aqueous organic compounds during serpentinization, we sampled water and dissolved gases from circumneutral surface pools and hyperalkaline seeps in the Samail ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman and analyzed for various carbon constituents, including dissolved inorganic carbon , dissolved organic carbon , methane, carbon monoxide, formate, acetate, and other small organic acid anions.
Measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved H2, O2, major cations, major anions, and major and trace elements were also made. The aqueous composition of the analyzed samples was speciated based on ionic equilibrium interactions in order to obtain activities for inorganic carbon species, reduced carbon species, H2, and O2.
The redox disequilibria among carbon species was then assessed using data and parameters for the revised HKF equations of state. This analysis demonstrates that the carbon species in this system are out of equilibrium with respect to one another in ways that cannot be compensated by altering the abundance of the other constituents within analytical uncertainties.
Specifically, there is too much formate and too little methane relative to stable and metastable equilibria. This result implies the following: 1 Methane and formate equilibrated in separate parts of the system, given that no reasonable temperature, pressure, or composition changes satisfy equilibrium with their measured abundances. Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium.
Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon -enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system CNS in health and disease.
Acute administration of carbon -containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate the major excitatory neurotransmitter and [3H]GABA the main inhibitory neurotransmitter by isolated rat brain nerve terminals.
The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon -containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.
Comparison of CO 2 and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources for triacylglycerol and starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Microalgae are capable of accumulating high levels of lipids and starch as carbon storage compounds. Investigation into the metabolic activities involved in the synthesis of these compounds has escalated since these compounds can be used as precursors for food and fuel. Here, we detail the results of a comprehensive analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high or low inorganic carbon concentrations and speciation between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and the effects these have on inducing lipid and starch accumulation during nitrogen depletion.
Low CO 2 0. High bicarbonate caused a cessation of cell cycling and accumulation of both TAG and starch that was more stable than the other experimental conditions. This suggests carbon reallocation from starch-based to TAG-based carbon storage. The geographic concentration of blue carbon in the continental US.
Salt water wetlands have the potential to be bought and sold as relatively rich reservoirs of carbon in the context of sequestration projects. However, little is known about the geographic distribution of this potential, and no coarse scale investigation has addressed this ecosystem service at the continental scale.
Our objective was to determine blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal wetland soils in the United States and categorize the potential for projects by estuarine basin, state, and wetland type. We then calculated and mapped soil organic carbon across the continental US. Results were filtered by state, estuarine basin, wetland type, and accumulation rate, and ranking lists for each categorization were produced. The results showed that belowground carbon accumulation is concentrated in specific regions, with the richest and largest reservoirs in the Gulf and Atlantic southeastern estuaries, for example mangrove zones in Florida.
Salt marshes on the southern Pacific Coast were relatively low in carbon due to small areas of coverage and the presence of sandy and inorganic soil. The geomorphic position of a wetland within a given estuary, for example on an exposed barrier island versus recessed towards inflowing headwaters, accounted for a greater degree of soil carbon variation than the wetland type, for example woody mangroves versus herbaceous marshes.
The potential of a blue carbon sequestration project in relation to its location could be influential in determining wetland policy, conservation, and restoration in the coming decades. Full Text Available To explore the inorganic carbon utilization of the freshwater red alga Compsopogon coeruleus, photosynthetic rates in response to increasing of bicarbonate concentration , the addition of alkaline HEPES buffer pH 8. Among the treatments, adding acid HEPES buffer significantly reduced photosynthetic rates of the alga, while others showed no effect.
Accordingly, we concluded that C. The alga might have higher affinity for bicarbonate and directly uptake bicarbonate as main Ci source without the aid of extracellular carbonic anhydrase. Carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon reflect utilization of different carbon sources by microbial communities in two limestone aquifer assemblages.
Full Text Available Isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon DIC are used to indicate both transit times and biogeochemical evolution of groundwaters. These signals can be complicated in carbonate aquifers, as both abiotic i. For more quantitative estimates of contributions of different biotic and abiotic carbon sources to the DIC pool, we used the NETPATH geochemical modeling program, which accounts for changes in dissolved ions in addition to C isotopes.
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