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Reconstruction algorithms are employed to map volume images of dielectric distribution in the imaging domain, which is in turn related to phase distribution. ECVT is suitable for imaging interacting materials of different dielectric constants, typical in multi-phase flow systems. ECVT is being used extensively for measuring flow variables in various gas-liquid and gas-solid flow systems.
Recent application of ECVT include flows in risers and exit regions of circulating fluidized beds , gas-liquid and gas-solid bubble columns , trickle beds , and slurry bubble columns. The technology is uniquely qualified for imaging phase concentrations in packed bed reactors for the ISS flight experiments as it exhibits favorable features of compact size, low profile sensors, high imaging speed, and.
In order to improve the separative performance of a combined electrolysis catalytic exchange CECE process, we have carried out experimental studies on hydrogen isotope separation by a CECE process using a liquid phase catalytic exchange LPCE column of trickle-type packed beds. Two types of trickle beds were tested in our previous study. One was the layered bed , where layers of Kogel catalysts and Dixon gauze rings were alternately filled in the column.
The other was the homogeneous bed , where Kogel catalysts and Dixon gauze rings were homogeneously mixed and filled in the column. We found that 1 the homogeneously packed bed was more efficient than the layered packed bed , and 2 the catalyst quantity was optimal, which resulted in the highest separative performance.
Optimization of a packed bed reactor for liquid waste treatment. The authors describe an optimization study of a packed bed reactor PBR , developed for the treatment of hazardous liquid wastes. The focus is on the destruction of trichloroethylene TCE. The PBR technology offers many distinct advantages over other processes: simple design, high destruction rates The cost effectiveness, optimal operating parameters and scaleability were determined.
As a second stage of treatment, a silent discharge plasma SDP reactor was installed to further treat offgases from the PBR. A primary advantage of this system is closed loop operation, where exhaust gases are continuously recycled and not released into the atmosphere. Numerical study on hygroscopic material drying in packed bed. Full Text Available The paper addresses numerical simulation for the case of convective drying of hygroscopic material in a packed bed , analyzing agreement between the simulated and the corresponding experimental results.
In the simulation model of unsteady simultaneous one-dimensional heat and mass transfer between gas phase and dried material, it is assumed that the gas-solid interface is at thermodynamic equilibrium, while the drying rate of the specific product is calculated by applying the concept of a "drying coefficient". Model validation was done on the basis of the experimental data obtained with potato cubes. The obtained drying kinetics, both experimental and numerical, show that higher gas drying agent velocities flow-rates, as well as lower equivalent grain diameters, induce faster drying.
This effect is more pronounced for deeper beds , because of the larger amount of wet material to be dried using the same drying agent capacity. Full Text Available Abstract The ethanol-water separation is very important because ethanol is widely applied in the chemical industry and its use as a fuel can reduce the pollution emitted to the air.
However, anhydrous ethanol production using conventional distillation is impossible, at atmospheric pressure, due to the presence of an azeotrope. In the present work, experimental tests were carried out in order to evaluate the use of glycerol as an entrainer, in substitution of ethylene glycol in an extractive distillation. The use of glycerol is motivated by the biodiesel production units, due to the fact that it is the main byproduct and a new market is necessary to consume its overproduction.
The samples were analyzed using a digital densimeter. Some empirical correlations were investigated to evaluate the HETP Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate, and the results provided a useful tool for designing a packed bed column for ethanol-water separation. Breakthrough characteristics of gas absorption in a packed column. In nuclear industries, the operations to collect or recover various radioactive and non-radioactive gases with a number of absorption or adsorption reagents are practically utilized or planned.
Specifically in the operations of recovering hydrogen isotopes, the direct collecting method with active metals such as uranium, zirconium Zr and yttrium is watched with keen interest. In this study, the capability of recovering hydrogen by means of Zr was investigated through the estimation of rate-determining step, by flowing the gas mixture of hydrogen and argon after activating metallic Zr under the condition of high temperature and high vacuum, and by determining overall mass transfer coefficient from the absorption breakthrough curves.
The details of a packed column and the flowsheet are also described, and the deterioration of Zr powder is considered. That is, the diffusion speed and absorbing reaction speed of hydrogen in Zr particles are supposed to be slow and dominant in mass transfer speed. Further, since gas mixture does not simply diffuse in Zr particles, but the reaction plane seems to move toward the center from the surface in the case of Zr, different from general adsorbents, the moving speed seems to give large effect on the rate-determining step.
It is ensured that the hydrogen absorption with Zr powder is so active that hydrogen in gas flow can easily be recovered, and its separation from other gases can be effectively carried out by the desorption of hydrogen from Zr powder by heating it in vacuum. Wakatsuki, Y. Development of a mathematical model of a packed column for benzene removal from salt solutions. A mathematical model of a packed column was developed to describe the removal of benzene from radioactive salt solutions at the Savannah River Site.
The model was developed from existing, generalized mass transfer correlations for randomly dumped packing , and the correlations were adapted for structured packing. Thermophysical data specific to the solutions of interest were incorporated into the model. Verification of the code was completed using operating data from stripping columns at other locations. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed.
Honda, T. A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents.
In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager.
Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. Magnetohydraulic flow through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres. The flow of an electrically conducting fluid through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres in the presence of a strong magnetic field constitutes a very complex flow situation due to the constant turning of the fluid in and out of magnetic field lines.
The interaction of the orthogonal components of the velocity and magnetic field will induce electric fields that are orthogonal to both and the electric fields in turn can cause currents that interact with the magnetic field to generate forces against the direction of flow. The strengths of these generated forces depend primarily upon the closure paths taken by the induced currents which, in turn, depend upon the relative ratio of the electrical resistance of the solid spheres to that of the fluid.
Both experimental and analytical analyses of the slow flow of a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium NaK through packed cylinders containing stainless steel spheres in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field were completed. A theory of magnetohydraulic flow is developed by analogy with the development of hydraulic radius theories of flow through porous media. An exact regional analysis is successfully applied to an infinite bed of electrically conducting spheres with a conducting or non-conducting constraining wall on one side.
The equations derived are solved for many different combinations of flowrate, magnetic field strength, porosity, and electrical resistance ratio. Analysis of packing microstructure and wall effects in a narrow-bore ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography column using focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy. Column wall effects are well recognized as major limiting factor in achieving high separation efficiency in HPLC.
This is especially important for modern analytical columns packed with small particles, where wall effects dominate the band broadening. Detailed knowledge about the packing microstructure of packed analytical columns has so far not been acquired. Here, we present the first three-dimensional reconstruction protocol for these columns utilizing focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy FIB-SEM on a commercial 2.
Two sections from the packed bed are chosen for reconstruction by FIB-SEM: one from the bulk packing region of the column and one from its critical wall region. This allows quantification of structural differences between the wall region and the center of the bed due to effects induced by the hard, confining column wall.
Consequences of these effects on local flow velocity in the column are analyzed with flow simulations utilizing the lattice-Boltzmann method. The reconstructions of the bed structures reveal significant structural differences in the wall region extending radially over approximately 62 particle diameters compared to the center of the column.
In addition, four more ordered layers of particles in the direct vicinity of the column wall induce local velocity fluctuations by up to a factor of three regarding the involved velocity amplitudes. These observations highlight the impact of radial variations in packing microstructure on band migration and column performance. This knowledge on morphological peculiarities of column wall effects helps guiding us towards further optimization of the packing process for analytical.
Fixed- bed column study for 90Sr removal from solution by sunflower straw. This paper deals with removal of strontium ions from solution by sunflower straw. Metal sorption performance of the packed column was assessed under variable operating conditions, such as, bed depths, flow rates and initial influent strontium concentration. It was found that the breakthrough time and the depletion time were extended with increase of bed heights but obviously shortened with increase of influent concentration and flow rates, respectively.
The equilibrium uptake q e exp of sunflower straw increased with increase in initial influent strontium concentration and flow rates but decreased with increase in bed depth, respectively. The data in regard to the effect of bed depths were fitted well to the Bohrat-Adams model. The saturated column was successfully regenerated by 0. The results indicated that the column could efficiently remove strontium ions from real industrial effluents, and hence the sunflower straw is a good candidate for commercial application.
Empirical correlations for axial dispersion coefficient and Peclet number in fixed- bed columns. In this work, a new correlation for the axial dispersion coefficient was obtained using experimental data in the literature for axial dispersion in fixed- bed columns packed with particles. The Chung and Wen correlation, the De Ligny correlation are two popular empirical correlations.
However, the former lacks the molecular diffusion term and the latter does not consider bed voidage. The new axial dispersion coefficient correlation in this work was based on additional experimental data in the literature by considering both molecular diffusion and bed voidage. It is more comprehensive and accurate. The adsorption of copper in a packed-bed of chitosan beads: Modeling, multiple adsorption and regeneration.
In this study, exoskeletons of Cape rock lobsters were used as raw material in the preparation of chitin that was successively deacetylated to chitosan flakes. The chitosan flakes were modified into chitosan beads and the beads were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde in order to study copper adsorption and regeneration in a packed-bed column. Despite the loss of Longitudinal dispersion coefficient depending on superficial velocity of hydrogen isotopes flowing in column packed with zeolite pellets at Kotoh, K.
Authors have been developing a cryogenic pressure swing adsorption system for hydrogen isotope separation. In the problem of its design and operation, it is necessary to predict the concentration profiles developing in packed beds of adsorbent pellets. The profiling is affected by the longitudinal dispersion of gas flowing in packed beds , in addition to the mass transfer resistance in porous media of adsorbent pellets. Since specialized for hydrogen isotopes, this equation can be considered to estimate the dispersion coefficients more reliable for the cryogenic hydrogen isotope adsorption process, than the existing equations.
Continuous thermophilic biohydrogen production in packed bed reactor. Maximum H 2 production rate of 1. The substrate degradation kinetics was investigated as a function of flow rate considering the external film diffusion model. Recycle ratio of 0. The viable cell count was directly proportional to the recycle ratio within the range 0.
Taguchi design showed the significant influence of the feed pH on continuous H 2 production followed by dilution rate and recycle ratio. Thus environmentally friendly and cheaper solid matrix like coconut coir could be efficiently used for thermophilic continuous hydrogen production. Biological perchlorate reduction in packed bed reactors using elemental sulfur. Sulfur-utilizing perchlorate ClO4- -reducing bacteria were enriched from a denitrifying wastewater seed with elemental sulfur S0 as an electron donor.
The enrichment was composed of a diverse microbial community, with the majority identified as members of the phylum Proteobacteria. Cultures were inoculated into bench-scale packed bed reactors PBR with S0 and crushed oyster shell packing media. The presence of nitrate 6. The microbial community composition was found to change with ClO4- availability from a majority of Beta-Proteobacteria near the influent end of the reactor to primarily sulfur-oxidizing bacteria near the effluent end of the reactor.
Laboratory studies of the behavior of undissolved solids in both pulsed and packed column extraction systems. A substantial fraction of the finely divided undissolved solid material found in nuclear fuel reprocessing dissolver-product solutions is hydrophobic and tends to ''seek'' any organic-aqueous interface existing within countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction systems.
While passing through pulsed-type columns this material is swept out of the aqueous phase by the combined surface area of the tiny bubbles of dispersed phase. Because these bubbles have a net velocity towards the end of the column where the nominal interface is located, the solids are swept in that direction too. These solids tend to gather in a three-phase ''crud'' layer at the nominal interface point.
At equilibrium, about the same amount breaks off from the crud layer and escapes into the liquid exiting from that end of the column as enters it from the other side. If large enough, the crud layer can even interfere with interface detection and control equipment.
In packed-column extraction systems, an additional problem is that feed solids can accumulate within the packing material to the point that the column '' floods'' or even totally plugs. The keys to preventing solids-related problems is the correct choice of interface level, and with packed columns , the addition of a ''pulsing leg'' at the bottom of the column. Pulsing packed column systems not only prevents solids from settling onto packing material but it also increses the number of theoretical stages available for extraction.
Using atomic layer deposited tungsten to increase thermal conductivity of a packed bed. Van Norman, Staci A. For catalysts, understanding the thermal properties of these packed beds is essential for developing thermally conductive supports as alternatives to structured supports.
Development of an experimental radioisotope based process tomography system for research applications in a cold trickle bed column. In chemical and petrochemical engineering applications, random and structured packing are used in process columns to enhance the heat and mass transfer between two phases. The packing used in such columns is meant to obtain a high specific interfacial area. It is of paramount importance for scale-up and design of trickle bed process columns , to understand and predict the complex multiphase fluid dynamics.
In simplified terms, the phase holdup, solid packing distribution in terms of density and gas and liquid velocities among other important parameters need to be qualitatively and quantitatively understood. In the petrochemical industry, many processes are carried out using fixed bed reactors with concurrent upward and downward gas and liquid flows.
In order to characterize the liquid and gas flow distribution through a mock-up column , data on planar and volume density distribution using computed tomographic measurements are very helpful. The paper describes the development efforts of a multi-detector Cs radioisotope based in-situ tomography scanner suitable for mm dia. The development work is at present in progress. The schematics and development of the scanner gantry is described in this paper.
Fluoride retardation from quartz sand- packed column tests. Full Text Available Inasmuch as both low and high concentrations of F- in groundwater have different detrimental effects on human health increased dental caries, and mottled enamel or even severe structural bone deformations, respectively, many efforts have focused on the movement of such anion in aqueous systems. It is so because water drinking is the main intake of F- by humans. This paper presents the results of seven dynamic experiments in which solutions of varying [F-], pH, and flow velocities circulated through columns packed with clean quartz sand.
The breakthrough data were analyzed by means of a computer code adapted to the estimation of equilibrium and non-equilibrium solute transport parameters from miscible displacement experiments in a steady-state, uniform flow field using a pulse-type or continuous source. It was found that larger retardation factors R are associated with low pH, low [F-] in the feed solutions, and larger flow velocities. Such results appear to be related to the form of the F species, the rather weak bond between the adsorbate and the quartz sand, and stronger anion repulsion at low pore velocities.
The estimated values for R vary between 1,22 and 1,50, whereas the distribution coefficients were in the range of 0,1 to 0,05 L kg It should be said that the breakthrough curves display hysteresis, leading to a desorption behavior that proceeds faster than the adsorption process. A numerical model is being developed using Python which characterizes the conversion and temperature profiles of a packed bed reactor PBR that utilizes the Sabatier process; the reaction produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
While the specific kinetics of the Sabatier reaction on the RuAl2O3 catalyst pellets are unknown, an empirical reaction rate equation1 is used for the overall reaction. As this reaction is highly exothermic, proper thermal control is of the utmost importance to ensure maximum conversion and to avoid reactor runaway.
It is therefore necessary to determine what wall temperature profile will ensure safe and efficient operation of the reactor. This wall temperature will be maintained by active thermal controls on the outer surface of the reactor.
Two cylindrical PBRs are currently being tested experimentally and will be used for validation of the Python model. They are similar in design except one of them is larger and incorporates a preheat loop by feeding the reactant gas through a pipe along the center of the catalyst bed.
The further complexity of adding a preheat pipe to the model to mimic the larger reactor is yet to be implemented and validated; preliminary validation is done using the smaller PBR with no reactant preheating. When mapping experimental values of the wall temperature from the smaller PBR into the Python model, a good approximation of the total conversion and temperature profile has been achieved.
A separate CFD model incorporates more complex three-dimensional effects by including the solid catalyst pellets within the domain. The goal is to improve the Python model to the point where the results of other reactor geometry can be reasonably predicted relatively quickly when compared to the much more computationally expensive CFD approach.
Once a reactor size is narrowed down using the Python approach, CFD will be used to generate a more thorough prediction of the reactors performance. Hydrodynamic behaviour of a gas—solid counter-current packed column at trickle flow.
Trickle flow of a more or less fluidized catalyst through a packed column is a promising new gas—solid counter-current operation. Packed bed reactor treatment of liquid hazardous and mixed wastes. We are developing thermal-based packed bed reactor PBR technology as an alternative to incineration for treatment of hazardous organic liquid wastes. The current treatment system is configured as a two stage device with the PBR 1st stage coupled to a silent discharge plasma SDP cell.
One of the primary advantages of this two stage system is that its suitability for closed loop operation where radioactive components are well contained and even CO 2 is not released to the environment. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges DBDs sustained in packed bed reactors PBRs are being investigated for CO2 removal and conversion of waste gases into higher value compounds. Dielectric beads rods in 2D were inserted between two coplanar electrodes, 1 cm apart filled by humid air.
A step-pulse of kV was applied to the top electrode. Material properties of the beads dielectric constant, secondary emission coefficient and gas properties photoionization and photo-absorption cross-sections, temperature were varied. We found that photoionization plays a critical role in the propagation of the discharge through the PBR, as it serves to seed charges in regions of high electric field.
Increasing rates of photo-ionization enable increases in the discharge propagation velocity, ionization rates and production of radicals. A transition between DBD-like and arc-like discharges occurs as the radiation mean free path decreases. Secondary electron emission coefficient and gas temperature have minimal impacts on the discharge propagation though the latter did affect the production of reactive species.
Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed sand filters. Septic tank systems are an important source of NO3- to many aquifers, yet characterization of N mass balance and isotope systematics following septic tank effluent discharge into unsaturated sediments has received limited attention. In this study, samples of septic tank effluent before and after transport through single-pass packed-bed filters sand filters were evaluated to elucidate mass balance and isotope effects associated with septic tank effluent discharge to unsaturated sediments.
Septic tank effluent?? In contrast,?? Values of?? Micro-fabricated packed gas chromatography column based on laser etching technology. In this work, a micro packed gas chromatograph column integrated with a micro heater was fabricated by using laser etching technology LET for analyzing environmental gases.
LET is a powerful tool to etch deep well-shaped channels on the glass wafer, and it is the most effective way to increase depth of channels. The fabricated packed GC column with a length of over 1. In addition, the fabricated column with a rectangular cross section of 1. Tritium isotope separation by water distillation column packed with silica-gel beads. Tritium enrichment or depletion by water distillation was investigated using a glass column of 32cm in height packed with silica-gel beads of 3.
Depletion of the tritium activity in the distillate was enhanced by isotopic exchange with water absorbed on silica-gel beads that have a higher affinity for HTO than for H 2 O. Removal of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate from aqueous solutions in packed bed filter using biochar augmented sand media. Full Text Available Nutrients from wastewater are a major source of pollution because they can cause significant impact on the ecosystem. Accordingly, it is important that the nutrient concentrations are kept to admissible levels to the receiving environment.
Often regulatory limits are set on the maximum allowable concentrations in the effluent. Therefore, wastewater must be treated to meet safe levels of discharge. In this study, laboratory investigation of the efficiency of packed bed filters to remove nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from aqueous solutions were conducted. Sand and sand augmented with hydrochloric acid treated biochar SBC were used as packing media.
Each experiment ran for a period of five days; samples from the effluent were collected on alternate days. All experiments were duplicated. Although, the presence of biochar in the packing media had little effect on phosphate and ammonium removal, it significantly improved nitrate removal. Full Text Available In his textbook teaching of packed bed permeability, Georges Guiochon uses mobile phase velocity as the fluid velocity term in his elaboration of the Darcy permeability equation.
Although this velocity frame makes a lot of sense from a thermodynamic point of view, it is valid only with respect to permeability at a single theoretical boundary condition. In his more recent writings, however, Guiochon has departed from his long-standing mode of discussing permeability in terms of the Darcy equation and has embraced the well-known Kozeny-Blake equation.
In this paper, his teaching pertaining to the constant in the Kozeny-Blake equation is examined and, as a result, a new correlation coefficient is identified and defined herein based on the velocity frame used in his teaching. This coefficient correlates pressure drop and fluid velocity as a function of particle porosity.
We show that in their experimental protocols, Guiochon et al. By correcting the experimental data to properly reflect particle porosity we reconcile the experimental results of Guiochon and Giddings, resulting in a permeability reference chart which is presented here for the first time. Distilled water and air containing 1. Steady-state experiments were performed in a column of 0. Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage with packed bed thermal energy storage.
While packed beds have been suggested, a detailed analysis of A-CAES with packed beds is lacking in the available literature. This paper presents such an analysis. We develop a numerical model of an A-CAES system with packed beds and validate it against analytical solutions. The system is then simulated for continuous cycling and it is found that the build-up of leftover heat from previous cycles in the packed beds results in higher steady state temperature profiles of the packed beds.
This leads to a small reduction Magnetic resonance velocity imaging of liquid and gas two-phase flow in packed beds. Single-phase liquid flow in porous media such as bead packs and model fixed bed reactors has been well studied by MRI. To some extent this early work represents the necessary preliminary research to address the more challenging problem of two-phase flow of gas and liquid within these systems.
In this paper, we present images of both the gas and liquid velocities during stable liquid-gas flow of water and SF 6 within a packing of 5mm spheres contained within columns of diameter 40 and 27 mm; images being acquired using 1 H and 19 F observation for the water and SF 6 , respectively.
In addition to the information obtained directly from these images, the ability to measure liquid and gas flow fields within the same sample environment will enable us to explore the validity of assumptions used in numerical modelling of two-phase flows. A parametric study of powder holdups in a packed bed under Packed bed , turbulent flow, mathematical modelling, decreasing The vertical gauge pressure distribution, at a distance of 0.
A CFD model for biomass combustion in a packed bed furnace. Karim, Md. Climate change has now become an important issue which is affecting environment and people around the world. Global warming is the main reason of climate change which is increasing day by day due to the growing demand of energy in developed countries.
Use of renewable energy is now an established technique to decrease the adverse effect of global warming. But the combustion of biomass is complex due its large variations and physical structures. Packed bed or fixed bed combustion is the most common method for the energy conversion of biomass. Experimental investigation of packed bed biomass combustion is difficult as the data collection inside the bed is challenging.
CFD simulation of these combustion systems can be helpful to investigate different operational conditions and to evaluate the local values inside the investigation area. In this work, a complete three-dimensional CFD model is presented for numerical investigation of packed bed biomass combustion. The model describes the solid phase along with the interface between solid and gas phase.
It also includes the bed shrinkage due to the continuous movement of the bed during solid fuel combustion. Several variables are employed to represent different parameters of solid mass. Modified standard discrete transfer radiation method DTRM is applied to model the radiation heat transfer.
Preliminary results of gas phase velocity and pressure drop over packed bed have been shown. The model can be useful for investigation of movement of the packed bed during solid fuel combustion. The influence of bamboo- packed configuration to mixing characteristics in a fixed- bed reactor. Fixed- bed reactors are commonly used as bioreactors for various applications, including chemicals production and organic wastewater treatment.
Bioreactors are fixed with packing materials for attaching microorganisms. Packing materials should have high surface area and enable sufficient fluid flow in the reactor. Natural materials e. Commercially, packing materials are also produced from polymer with the advantage of customizable shapes. The objective of this research was to study the mixing pattern in a packed-bed reactor using bamboo as packing material. Bamboo was selected for its pipe-like and porous form, as well as its abundant availability in Indonesia.
The cut bamboo sticks were installed in a reactor in different configurations namely vertical, horizontal, and random. Textile dye was used as a tracer. Our results show that the vertical configuration gave the least liquid resistant flow. Yet, the random configuration was the best configuration during mixing process. Full Text Available Separations using supercritical fluid chromatography SFC with packed columns have been re-discovered and explored in recent years.
SFC enables fast and efficient separations and, in some cases, gives better results than high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in SFC separations using packed columns for both achiral and chiral separations. The most important types of stationary phases used in SFC are discussed as well as the most critical parameters involved in the separations and some recent applications. Continuous adsorption and biotransformation of micropollutants by granular activated carbon-bound laccase in a packed-bed enzyme reactor.
Laccase was immobilized on granular activated carbon GAC and the resulting GAC-bound laccase was used to degrade four micropollutants in a packed-bed column. Compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized laccase showed high residual activities over a broad range of pH and temperature. The GAC-bound laccase efficiently removed four micropollutants, namely, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bisphenol A, commonly detected in raw wastewater and wastewater-impacted water sources.
Mass balance analysis showed that these micropollutants were enzymatically degraded following adsorption onto GAC. Higher degradation efficiency of micropollutants by the immobilized compared to free laccase was possibly due to better electron transfer between laccase and substrate molecules once they have adsorbed onto the GAC surface.
Results here highlight the complementary effects of adsorption and enzymatic degradation on micropollutant removal by GAC-bound laccase. Indeed laccase-immobilized GAC outperformed regular GAC during continuous operation of packed-bed columns over two months a throughput of 12, bed volumes. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of gas flow through packed beds.
This work is concerned with finding out an effective way of eliminating oxygen from a packed bed of monomer particles. This process finds application in industries involved in the manufacture of Nylon In the manufacture of the polymer Nylon12, the polymerization reaction is hindered by the presence of oxygen.
Therefore, the main objective of this study is to get rid of the oxygen by injecting nitrogen to displace the oxygen from the voids in-between the monomer particles before they are introduced into the polymerization reactor. This work involves the numerical simulation and experimental verification of the flow in a packed bed. In addition, a parametric study is carried out for the parameters such as the number of injectors, the radial position of injectors, and the position of the injectors along the circumference of the packed bed to find out the best possible combination for effective elimination of the oxygen.
Nitrogen does not interact with the monomer particles and hence there is no chemical reaction involved in this process. The nitrogen is introduced into the packed bed at a flow rate which will keep the superficial velocity well below the minimum fluidization velocity of the monomer particles. The fluid flow inside the packed bed will be a multicomponent gas flow through a porous medium.
The simulation results are validated by comparing with the experimental results. Transport from the Membrane to the Packed Bed. With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target. Effect of mass-transport limitations on the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor for partial oxidations.
Transport from the membrane to the packed bed. Bedding materials may affect air quality in livestock facilities. Air samples were collected from the headspace of laboratory-scaled bedded manure packs weekly for 42 d. The highest NH concentrations were observed at Day Greenhouse gases were largely unaffected by bedding material but CH and CO concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged and NO concentrations were highly variable throughout the incubation.
All gas concentrations increased as the bedded packs aged, suggesting that frequent cleaning of facilities would improve air quality in the barn, regardless of bedding materials used. Oxidation of ethene in a wall-cooled packed-bed reactor. Gas and solid temperatures in the catalyst bed were measured at different axial and radial positions as well as concentrations at different axial. Effect of packing fraction variations on reactivity in pebble- bed reactor.
The pebble- bed reactor PBR core consists of large number of randomly packed spherical fuel elements. It is observed that at normal conditions the k-eff increases with packing fraction. Effects of secondary coolant ingress water or molten lead in the core at accidental conditions are studied at various packing densities. The effect of water ingress on reactivity depends strongly on water density and packing fraction and is prevailingly positive, while the lead ingress reduces multiplication factor regardless of lead effective density and packing fraction.
Both effects are stronger at lower packing fractions. Adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solutions and sewage using zirconium loaded okara ZLO : Fixed- bed column study. This study explores the potential of removing phosphorus from aqueous solutions and sewage by Zr IV -loaded okara ZLO in the fixed- bed column. Soybean residue okara was impregnated with 0. The effect of several factors, including flow rate, bed height, initial phosphorus concentration, pH and adsorbent particle size on the performance of ZLO was examined.
The maximum dynamic adsorption capacity of ZLO for phosphorus was estimated to be Breakthrough curve modeling indicated that Adams—Bohart model and Thomas model fitted the experimental data better than Yoon—Nelson model. After treatment with ZLO packed bed column , the effluent could meet the discharge standard for phosphorus in Australia. Successful desorption and regeneration were achieved with 0.
The results prove that ZLO can be used as a promising phosphorus adsorbent in the dynamic adsorption system. Nguyen, T. Oxidation of tritium in packed bed of noble metal catalyst for detritiation from system gases. Catalytic oxidation rates of tritium in the bed of the noble metal catalysts are obtained and compared with the oxidation rates observed for the packed bed of spongy copper oxide or hopcalites. Use of Pt- or Pd-aluminia catalysts is recommended in this study because they give effective oxidation rates of tritium in the ambient temperature range.
The adsorption performance of tritiated water in the catalyst bed is also discussed. Hydrodynamic impact of particle shape in slurry packed liquid chromatography columns. We report on a series of flow velocity and efficiency profiles, which were measured across the cross section of preparative chromatographic columns packed with different stationary phase materials using computed tomography. It is shown that this non-invasive technique is very useful for visualiza Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.
An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep- packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding.
The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with to mm of deep- pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily.
After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep- pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep- pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci.
However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. Published by Elsevier Inc. Mass transfer in liquid phase catalytic exchange column of trickle bed type. The mechanism of mass transfer in a liquid phase catalytic exchange column was discussed for a trickle bed type.
A new model has been proposed on the basis of this mass transfer mechanism; and several problems for the previous reported models were pointed out in the derivation of the model. An overall rate equation was first derived from the vapor-hydrogen exchange in the model. The mass transfer for the vapor-hydrogen exchange was decomposed to the following three steps: the mass transfer in a gas boundary layer on a catalyst particle; the mass transfer within the pores in the catalyst; and the chemical reaction on the surface of the catalyst.
The water-vapor scrubbing process was considered as a series of the mass transfers in gas and liquid boundary layers on the wetted surfaces of the catalyst and packings or wall of the column. Significant subjects to be studied were proposed from the viewpoint of the validity of the model and the optimization of the column. Flooding and mass transfer in Goodloe- packed columns , Part 2. Krypton gas is recovered from HTGR off-gas streams by countercurrent absorption in liquid carbon dioxide.
Goodloe stainless steel wire mesh packing was chosen for the absorption columns since the process operates at 0 C and about 20 atm pressure. Flooding points and an overall mass transfer coefficient for Goodloe- packed columns were determined with a carbon dioxide-air-water system for 6. Flood points were obtained for liquid-to-gas mass velocity ratios of 20 to Experimental performance evaluation of sintered Gd spheres packed beds.
Research in magnetic refrigeration heavily relies on the use of packed spheres in regenerators, however little investigation to verify that such non-monolithic arrangements guarantee a sufficiently constrained structure has yet been performed. This work presents a preliminary comparison of the pe This work presents a preliminary comparison Pressure drop is compared at uniform temperature and at a range of heat Axial dispersion of gas and solid phases in a gas—solid packed column at trickle flow.
Axial dispersion of gas and solid phases in a gas—solid packed column at trickle flow, a promising new countercurrent operation, was evaluated using residence time distribution RTD experiments. The column was packed with dumped Pall rings, the gas phase was air at ambient conditions and the solid.
Experimental measurement of effective thermal conductivity of packed lithium-titanate pebble bed. Lithium titanate is a promising solid breeder material for the fusion reactor blanket. Packed lithium titanate pebble bed is considered for the blanket. The thermal energy; that will be produced in the bed during breeding and the radiated heat from the reactor core absorbed must be removed. So, the experimental thermal property data are important for the blanket design.
In past, a significant amount of works were conducted to determine the effective thermal conductivity of packed solid breeder pebble bed , in helium atmosphere, but no flow of gas was considered. With increase in gas flow rate, effective thermal conductivity of pebble bed increases.
Particle size and void fraction also affect the thermal properties of the bed significantly. An experimental facility with external heat source was designed and installed. Experiments were carried out with lithium-titanate pebbles of different sizes at variable gas flow rates and at different bed wall temperature. It was observed that effective thermal conductivity of pebble bed is a function of particle Reynolds number and temperature.
From the experimental data two correlations have been developed to estimate the effective thermal conductivity of packed lithium-titanate pebble bed for different particle Reynolds number and at different temperatures.
The experimental details and results are discussed in this paper. One was the layered bed where layers of Kogel catalysts and that of Dixon gauze rings were filled in the column alternately. The other was the homogeneous bed where Kogel catalysts and Dixon gauze rings were mixed and filled in the column homogeneously.
We found two major points: 1 the homogeneous bed was more efficient than the layered bed and 2 there was an optimal quantity of the catalyst for both types of beds to obtain the largest separation factor. The optimal quantity of the catalyst is affected by various factors such as catalytic activity, flow rates of fluid, temperature and so on. In this study we focused on an effect of the gasliquid ratio.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate experimentally the effect of the gas-liquid ratio on the optimal quantity of the catalyst using with a homogeneous bed. The column is a Pyrex glass tube with 25 mm internal diameter and 60 cm length.
The column is filled with Kogel catalysts 1. A catalyst packed -ratio is defined as a ratio of the grain-volume of catalyst to the grain volume of the whole packings , where grain volumes mean the volume of a sphere with average diameter of the Kogel catalyst and the volume of a cylinder which has the outer shape same as a Dixon gauze ring.
Hydrogen-deuterium isotope separation with the CECE equipment was performed at kPa, K for various values of the catalyst packed -ratio and for various values of the gas-liquid ratio. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater. The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b.
Alginate-entrapped cells of S. Cells grown in minimal salt medium pH 6. The degradation of cyanide in PBR showed direct dependence on retention time. The retention time of cyanide in the reactor was 9. The PBR can degrade 1. Full Text Available Investigations to develop data for this study were made using a pilot scale glass column of 9 cm inside diameter randomly filled to a depth of 1.
Using the modified versions of the Eckert flooding model and the Bravo effective area ae approach, as well as the Onda wetted area aw and individual mass transfer coefficient models, it has been attempted to estimate the packing efficiency theoretically. This article also deals with the design strategies attributed to a randomly packed column. Emphasis is mainly placed on the way to formulate an algorithm of designing a pilot scale column through the models being attributed to the film theory.
Using the column dry pressure drop properties based on the air flowing it has been achieved a generalized flow rate approach for calibrating of an orifice through which the air passes. The combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange CECE process with a hydrophobic catalyst is a very effective method to remove small quantities of tritium from light or heavy wastewater streams because of its high separation factor and mild operating conditions.
An experimental apparatus has been built for the testing of the catalyst at various temperatures and gas velocities. K y a increases with the hydrogen flow rates in the range of 0. The height of the catalyst column was determined from these K y a values according to the reaction temperatures and hydrogen flow rates. The immobilization was fast 1 h and the activity of the resulting biocatalyst was A continuous process for GOS synthesis was operated for h at 0. The stability of the bioreactor was satisfactory during the first 8 h of operation; after that, a decrease in the flow rate was observed, probably due to partial clogging of the column.
Microbial sulfate reduction under sequentially acidic conditions in an upflow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor. Jong, T. The aim of this study was to operate an upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor UAPB containing sulfate reducing bacteria SRB under acidic conditions similar to those found in acid mine drainage AMD. The UAPB was filled with sand and operated under continuous flow at progressively lower pH and was shown to be capable of supporting sulfate reduction at pH values of 6.
When the influent pH was further lowered to pH 3. However, viable SRB were recovered from the column , indicating that the SRB population was capable of surviving and metabolizing at low levels even at pH 3. The changes in conductivity in the SRB column did not always occur with changes in pH and redox potential, suggesting that conductivity measurements may be more sensitive to SRB activity and could be used as an additional tool for monitoring SRB activity.
The bioreactor containing SRB was able to reduce sulfate and generate alkalinity even when challenged with influent as low as pH 3. Analysis of wall- packed-bed thermal interactions. One of the major issues remaining for ceramic breeder blankets involves uncertainties in heat transfer and thermomechanical interactions within the breeder and multiplier regions.
Particle bed forms are considered in many reactor blanket designs for both the breeder and Be multiplier. The effective thermal conductivity of beds and the wall- bed thermal conductance are still not adequately characterized, particularly under the influence of mechanical stresses. In this work, we describe a new model for the wall- bed conductance that treats the near-wall region as a finite-width zone.
The model includes an estimate of the region porosity based on the number of contact points, and the contact area for smooth surfaces.
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